Peripheral tolerance

Peripheral tolerance

Peripheral tolerance is immunological tolerance developed after T and B cells mature and enter the periphery. The cells are controlled through peripheral tolerance mechanisms. These include the suppression of autoreactive cells by 'regulatory' T cells and the generation of hyporesponsiveness (anergy) in lymphocytes which encounter antigen in the absence of the co-stimulatory signals that accompany inflammation.


Potentially self-reactive T-cells are not activated at immunoprivileged sites, where antigens are expressed in non-surveillanced areas. This can occur in the testes, for instance.

Some antigens are at too low a concentration to cause an immune response - a subthreshold stimulation will lead to apoptosis in a T cell.

plit Tolerance

As many pathways of immunity are interdependent, they do not all need to be tolerised. For example, tolerised T cells will not activate autoreactive B cells. Without this CD4+ T-cell help the B cells will not be activated.

Induced anergy

T-cells can be made non-responsive to antigens presented if the T-cell engages an MHC molecule without co-stimulatory molecules. This will occur if there is no acute inflammation, leading to no co-stimulator upregulation due to the low concentration of cytokines.


Auto-reactive T-cells are prevented from reacting due to the presence of T-reg cells. Experimentally, removal of T-reg cells leads to autoimmune attack.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Peripheral neuropathy — Neuropathy redirects here. For other uses, see Neuropathy (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Nephropathy. Peripheral neuropathy Classification and external resources …   Wikipedia

  • Central tolerance — is the mechanism by which newly developing T cells and B cells are rendered non reactive to self[1]. The concept of central tolerance was proposed in 1959 by Joshua Lederberg[2], as part of his general theory of immunity and tolerance, and is… …   Wikipedia

  • Immune tolerance — or immunological tolerance is the process by which the immune system does not attack an antigen.[1] It can be either natural or self tolerance , in which the body does not mount an immune response to self antigens, or induced tolerance , in which …   Wikipedia

  • Immune tolerance in pregnancy — or gestational/maternal immune tolerance is the absence of a maternal immune response against the fetus and placenta, which thus may be viewed as unusually successful allografts, since they genetically differ from the mother.[1] In the same way,… …   Wikipedia

  • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor — Classification and external resources Micrograph of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour with the typical herringbone pattern. H E stain …   Wikipedia

  • Autoimmunity — Infobox Disease Name = Autoimmunity Caption = DiseasesDB = 28805 ICD10 = ICD9 = ICD9|279.4 ICDO = OMIM = 109100 MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = eMedicineTopic = MeshID = D001327 Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own… …   Wikipedia

  • Bcl-2 — is the prototype for a family of mammalian genes and the proteins they produce. They govern mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and can be either pro apoptotic (Bax, BAD, Bak and Bok among others) or anti apoptotic (including Bcl …   Wikipedia

  • Regulatory T cell — Regulatory T cells (sometimes known as suppressor T cells) are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self antigens. The… …   Wikipedia

  • HAVCR2 — Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2, also known as HAVCR2, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: HAVCR2 hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2| url = Cmd=ShowDetailView… …   Wikipedia

  • PD-L1 — CD274 molecule Rendering based on PDB 3BIK …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.