Rolls-Royce Derwent


Rolls-Royce Derwent

The Derwent is a 1940s British centrifugal compressor turbojet engine, the second Rolls-Royce jet engine to enter production. Essentially an improved version of the Rolls-Royce Welland, itself a renamed version of Frank Whittle's Power Jets W.2B, Rolls inherited the design from Rover when they took over their jet engine development in 1943. The performance over the original design was somewhat improved, reliability dramatically, making the Derwent the chosen engine for the Gloster Meteor and many other post-World War II British jet designs.

Rover

When Rover was selected for production of Whittle's designs in 1941 they set up their main jet factory at Barnoldswick, staffed primarily by various Power Jets personnel. Rover felt their own engineers were better at everything, and also set up a parallel effort at Waterloo Mill, Clitheroe. Here Adrian Lombard attempted to develop the W.2 into a production quality design, angering Whittle who was left out of the team.

After a short period Lombard decided to dispense with Whittle's "reverse flow" design, and instead lay out the engine in a "straight-through" flow with the hot gas exiting directly onto the turbine instead of being piped forward as in Whittle's version. He may have been inspired by Frank Halford's layout of the Halford H.1 which was being built at about the same time. This layout made the engine somewhat longer and required a redesign of the nacelles on the Meteor, but also made the gas flow simpler and thereby improved reliability. While work at Barnoldswick continued on what was now known as the W.2B/23, Lombard's new design became the W.2B/26.

Rolls-Royce

By 1941 it was obvious to all that the arrangement was not working; Whittle was constantly frustrated by Rover's inability to deliver production-quality parts for a test engine, and became increasingly vocal about his complaints. Likewise Rover was losing interest in the project after the delays and constant harassment from Power Jets. Earlier, in 1940, Stanley Hooker of Rolls-Royce had met with Whittle, and later introduced him to Rolls' CEO, Ernest Hives. Rolls had a fully developed supercharger division, directed by Hooker, which was naturally suited to jet engine work. Hives agreed to supply key parts to help the project along. Eventually Spencer Wilkes of Rover met with Hives and Hooker, and decided to trade the jet factory at Barnoldswick for Rolls' Meteor tank engine factory in Nottingham. A handshake sealed the deal, turning Rolls-Royce into the powerhouse it remains to this day. Subsequent Rolls-Royce jet engines would be designated in an "RB" series, standing for Rolls Barnoldswick, the /26 Derwent becoming the RB.26.

Problems were soon ironed out, and the original /23 design was ready for flight by late 1943. This gave the team some breathing room, so they redesigned the /26's inlets for increased air flow, and thus thrust. Adding improved fuel and oil systems, the newly-named Derwent Mk.I entered production with 2,000 lbf (8.9 kN) of thrust. Mk.II, III and IV's followed, peaking at 2,400 lbf (10.7 kN) of thrust. The Derwent was the primary engine of all the early Meteors with the exception of the small number of Welland-equipped models which were quickly removed from service. The Mk.II was also modified with an extra turbine stage driving a gearbox and, eventually, a five-bladed propeller, forming the first production turboprop engine, the Trent (RB.50).

Mk.V

The basic Derwent design was also used to produce a larger 5,000 lbf (22.2 kN) thrust engine known as the Rolls-Royce Nene. Development of the Nene continued in a scaled-down version specifically for use on the Meteor, and to avoid the stigma of the earlier design, this was named the Derwent Mk.V. Several Derwents and Nenes were sold to the Soviet Union by the then Labour government, causing a major political row, as it was the most powerful production-turbojet in the world at the time. The Soviets promptly reverse engineered the Derwent V and produced their own unlicensed version, the Klimov RD-500. The Mk.V was also going to be used on the Canadian Avro Jetliner, but this was never put into production.

On 7 November 1945, a Meteor powered by the Derwent V set a world air speed record of 606 mph (975 km/h) TAS.

Variants

* Derwent I - first production version, 2,000 lbf (8.9 kN) of thrust
* Derwent II - thrust increased to 2,200 lbf (9.8 kN)
* Derwent III - experimental variant providing vacuum for wing boundary layer control
* Derwent IV - thrust increased to 2,400 lbf (10.7 kN)
* Derwent V - scaled-down version of the Rolls-Royce Nene developing 3,500 lbf (15.6 kN) of thrust

pecifications (Derwent I)

jetspecs

type=Turbojet
length=84 in (2,135 mm)
diameter=41.5 in (1,055 mm)
weight=975 lb (443 kg)
compressor=Single-stage dual-entry centrifugal compressor with two-sided impeller
combustion=10 flow combustors with igniter plugs in chambers 3 and 10
turbine=Single-stage axial flow with 54 blades
fueltype=Aviation kerosene with 1% lubricating oil
oilsystem=2.75 gal (12.5 L) capacity, circulation rate 215 gal/hr (976 L/hr), maximum inverted flying time 15 s
power=
thrust=
*120 lbf (0.5 kN) at 6,000 rpm at idle.
*2,000 lbf (8.9 kN) at 16,500 rpm for takeoff
*1,550 lbf (6.9 kN) at 15,000 rpm for cruise
compression=3.9:1
aircon=
turbinetemp=
fuelcon=
*470 lb/hr (215 kg/hr) at idle
*1,820 lb/hr (830 kg/hr) at cruise power
*2,360 lb/hr (1,070 kg/hr) at maximum power

  • Oil consumption: 0.125 gal/hr (0.57 L/hr)
    specfuelcon=
    power/weight=
    thrust/weight=2.1:1 (20.1 N/kg)

    References

    * Bridgman, L, (ed.) "Jane's fighting aircraft of World War II." London: Crescent, 1998. ISBN 0-517-67964-7

    External links

    * [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1yl0lCCZt74 Video of a Derwent #1 - (low resolution)]
    * [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4pTUeuEv8Uc Video of a Derwent #2 - (appears at the end)]


  • Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

    Look at other dictionaries:

    • Rolls Royce Derwent — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Derwent Motor Rolls Royce Derwent Tipo turborreactor F …   Wikipedia Español

    • Rolls-Royce Derwent — Das Rolls Royce Derwent war nach dem Welland das zweite in Serie produzierte Strahltriebwerk von Rolls Royce. Das nach dem gleichnamigen Fluss in der englischen Grafschaft Derbyshire benannte Einwellen Triebwerk hat einen Radial verdichter, neun… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

    • Rolls-Royce Trent 500 — Rolls Royce Trent ist eine Familie von Dreiwellen Turbofan Strahltriebwerken von Rolls Royce, die auf dem Rolls Royce RB211 basieren. Der Schub der verschiedenen Versionen liegt zwischen 236 und 423 kN (53.000 und 95.000 lbf). Der Name Trent… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

    • Rolls-Royce Trent 900 — Rolls Royce Trent ist eine Familie von Dreiwellen Turbofan Strahltriebwerken von Rolls Royce, die auf dem Rolls Royce RB211 basieren. Der Schub der verschiedenen Versionen liegt zwischen 236 und 423 kN (53.000 und 95.000 lbf). Der Name Trent… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

    • Rolls-Royce RB211 — Die Baureihe Rolls Royce RB211 sind Strahltriebwerke der mittleren Schubklasse des britischen Herstellers Rolls Royce. Es sind moderne Turbofan oder Mantelstromtriebwerke mit hohem Nebenstromverhältnis. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Geschichte …   Deutsch Wikipedia

    • Rolls Royce Trent (turbohélice) — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Trent Una turbohélice Rolls Royce Trent, exhibida en el Museo de Ciencias de Londres Tipo turbohélice …   Wikipedia Español

    • Rolls-Royce Trent — Rolls Royce Trent, offiziell RB211 Trent, ist eine Familie von Dreiwellen Turbofan Strahltriebwerken von Rolls Royce. Diese sind eine Weiterentwicklung der Rolls Royce RB211 und als RB211 Varianten zugelassen. Der Schub der verschiedenen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

    • Rolls Royce Eagle (1944) — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para el motor V12 de 1915, véase Rolls Royce Eagle. Para el motor X16 de 1925, véase Rolls Royce Eagle XVI. Eagle Tipo motor H24 enfriado por líquido. Fabricante Rolls Royce Limited …   Wikipedia Español

    • Rolls-Royce BR710 — Ansicht des Triebwerkes BR 710 Die BR700 ist eine Triebwerksreihe, die von der Firma Rolls Royce Deutschland gebaut wird. Die BR Triebwerke sind Zweiwellentriebwerke der mittleren Schubklasse und für Geschäftsreise und kleinere Linienflugzeuge… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

    • Rolls-Royce BR715 — Ansicht des Triebwerkes BR 710 Die BR700 ist eine Triebwerksreihe, die von der Firma Rolls Royce Deutschland gebaut wird. Die BR Triebwerke sind Zweiwellentriebwerke der mittleren Schubklasse und für Geschäftsreise und kleinere Linienflugzeuge… …   Deutsch Wikipedia