- Environmental Defense Fund
Environmental Defense Fund or EDF (formerly known as Environmental Defense) is a US-based nonprofit environmental advocacy group. The group is known for its work on issues including
global warming, ecosystem restoration, oceans, and human health. It is nonpartisan, and its work often advocates market-based solutions to environmental problems.
The founders of Environmental Defense Fund, including
Art Cooley["Memories and More: Saving a species," The New York Times, December 30. 2001.] and Charles Wurster, ["Fostering Clean Air through Environmental Law," The New York Times, May 14, 1995] ["Environmental Defense Fund member Dr. C.F. Wurster testifies…", The New York Times, Page 11, Column 1 – January 14, 1969] Dennis Puleston, Victor Yannaconeand Robert Smolker discovered in the mid 1960's that the osprey and other large raptors were rapidly disappearing. Their research uncovered a link between the spraying of DDTto kill mosquitos and weakening egg shells of the large birds. They started Environmental Defense Fund to seek a ban on DDT in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. They were successful. They then campaigned to ban DDT statewide and succeeded as well. They then took their efforts national. ["Wood, Field and Stream: Environmental Defense Fund Warns Pollution From Pesticides Still Exists,"The New York Times, February 3, 1970 II] ["DDT Ban Takes Effect" [EPA press release - December 31, 1972] , site accessed 4/12/2007http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/ddt/01.htm] ["DDT Regulatory History: A Brief Survey (to 1975)" [EPA report, July 1975] , site accessed 4/12/2007http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/ddt/02.htm]
The group is headquartered out of New York, with offices nationwide, and scientists and policy specialists working worldwide. It is directed by
Fred Kruppwho has served as its president since 1984. [Hoover's Company Records – Basic and In-depth Records: Hoover ID: 130102. April 10, 2007]
The organization claims that it advocates using sound
science, good economicsand good lawto find solutions that work.
Some environmentalists have protested that Environmental Defense Fund has "sold out" to big business through their "market based" initiatives. ["The Nation: For the Environment, Compassion Fatigue," by Keith Schneider, The New York Times, November 6, 1994] ["Climate shift: some environmental groups are sitting down with big business. But others say the fate of the planet is non-negotiable," by Daniels Brook, The Boston Globe, March 18, 2007]
Key accomplishments of Environmental Defense Fund include:
* 1967 - A small group of scientists forms the organization and sets out to win a nationwide ban on
DDT(in 1972), which had been harming wildlife and was found in human mother's milk. ["DDT Ban Takes Effect" [EPA press release - December 31, 1972] , site accessed 4/12/2007http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/ddt/01.htm]
* 1970 - Efforts bring all hunted
whales[List of Marine Mammal Species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), web site accessed 4/12/2007: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/esa/mammals.htm] ["S. McVay, chmn Com on Whales, Environmental Defense Fund, hails NY Times for backing efforts to conserve whales…", The New York Times, Page 34, Column 5 – September 1, 1970] onto the U.S. endangered species list.
* 1974 - An Environmental Defense Fund study of
Mississippi Riverwater ["Environmental Defense Fund analysis of Mississippi river drinking water says…", The New York Times, Page 29, Column 1, by Harold M. Schmeck, Jr. – November 8, 1974] ["EPA orders immediate nationwide study of chem contaminants in drinking water…", The New York Times, Page 32, Column 2, by Harold M. Schmeck, Jr. – November 9, 1974] ["EPA and Environmental Defense Fund studies revealing carcinogenic chem in drinking water… ", The New York Times, Page 32, Column 2, by Harold M. Schmeck, Jr. – November 17, 1974] helps pass the Safe Drinking Water Act, ["HR passes Safe Drinking Water Act authorizing EPA to set minimum Fed standards for drinking water … ", The New York Times, Page 21, Column 1, by Richard D. Lyons. – November 20, 1974] ["Protecting America's Drinking Water: Our Responsibilities Under the Safe Drinking Water Act" by James L. Agee, EPA Journal, March 1975 [EPA web site: History section] , web site accessed 4/13/2007http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/sdwa/07.htm] [Safe Drinking Water Act: Basic Information [EPA web site] , site accessed 4/13/2007http://www.epa.gov/safewater/sdwa/basicinformation.html] establishing the first comprehensive health standards for water nationwide.
* 1985 - Helped convince federal regulators to phase out lead from gasoline, ["Deadline set for Sept. 30 on airborne Lead Rules," by Bill Richards, The Washington Post, August 10, 1978 ] ["30 More Regulations Targeted for Review," by Felicity Barringer, The Washington Post, August 13, 1981] ["U.S. Closed Unit that Cited Health Effect of Lead in Gas" by Philip Shabecoff, The New York Times, July 26, 1982] ["Amid Budget Slashes, Priority Shifts; Perils of Lead Are Still Weighing Heavily," by Ruth Marcus, The Washington Post, July 29, 1982] ["Rules to Reduce the Lead in Gas Reported Ready," by Philip Shabecoff, The New York Times, August 1, 1982] ["EPA Scraps Plan To Ease Standards On Lead in Gasoline," by Sandra Sugawara, The Washington Post, August 2, 1982] ["Environmental Groups Fight Leaded Gas Plan," The New York Times, August 19, 1982] ["Environmentalists Laud New Rules on Lead in Gas," by William G. Blair, The New York Times, October 29, 1982] ["EPA Orders 90% of Lead Cut From Gasoline by Jan. 1," by Zack Nauth, The Los Angeles Times, March 5, 1985] ["EPA Sets New Limits on Lead in Gasoline" [EPA press release, March 4, 1985] , web site accessed 4/13/2007http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/lead/01.htm] leading to a dramatic decline in childhood
lead poisoning. [ "EPA Takes Final Step in Phaseout of Leaded Gasoline" [EPA press release – January 29, 1996] , site accessed 4/16/2007http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/lead/02.htm]
* 1986 - Pushed
McDonaldsto institute biodegradable food-packaging containers. ["The Nation: Environmentalists Try To Move the Markets," by John Holusha, The New York Times, August 22, 1993]
* 1987 - Played a key role in the treaty to phase out the use of
CFCs, chemicals that many researchers believe damage the Earth’s ozone layer. ["Business Forum: Saving the Earth's Ozone Layer; Industry Needs Incentives Not To Pollute" by Daniel J. Dudek, The New York Times, November 16, 1986] ["The Hole at the Bottom of the World," Editorial Desk, The New York Times, September 19, 1987]
* 1990 - Designed Title IV of the
Clean Air Act, which incorporates market-based methods to cut air pollution and acid rain. ["A Debate: Are Enough Data in Hand to Act Against Acid Rain?", Week in Review Desk, The New York Times, November 14, 1982] ["An Acid Test for Acid Rain," Editorial Desk, The New York Times, December 26, 1984] ["Consensus Is Seen To Curb Acid Rain," by Philip Sabecoff, The New York Times, October 18, 1985 ] ["Acid Rain Is Called Peril for Sea Life on Atlantic Coast," by Philip Sabecoff, The New York Times, April 25, 1988] ["The Nation: An Emergence of Political Will on Acid Rain," by Philip Sabecoff, The New York Times, February 19, 1989] ["Economic Watch: Sale of Air Pollution Permits Is Part of Bush Acid-Rain Plan," by Peter Passell, The New York Times, May 17, 1989] , ["Under Bush's Plan, Clean Air Becomes Profitable," by Peter Passell, Newsday, November 29, 1989] ["EPA Administrator Reilly Hails Signing of New Clean Air Act" [EPA press release – November 15, 1990] , site accessed 4/16/2007http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/caa90/02.htm] The measures reduce sulfur dioxide pollution faster than expected, and at a fraction of the cost. ["Clean Air Act Ahead of Schedule: Market Forces Quicken Emissions Reductions," by Casey Bukro, Chicago Tribune, March 27, 1996 ] ["The Environment: Ignore all doomsayers on EPA laws," by Gregg Easterbrook, Los Angeles Times, December 1, 1996] ["Clean Air Sale," by Boyce Rensberger, The Washington Post, August 9, 1999] ["Report on Acid Rain Finds Good News and Bad News," by Carol Kaesuk Yoon, The New York Times, October 7, 1999] ["Hog Wild for Pollution Trading: Why environmental markets are becoming a very big deal," by Cait Murphy, Fortune, September 2, 2002] ["Are Storm Clouds Massing? These traders need to know," by Vikas Bajaj, The New York Times, May 17, 2006]
* 1995 - Designed the
Safe Harborplan ["Deal Gives Woodpeckers Golf Habitat," by Tom Kenworthy, The Washington Post, March 2, 1995.] ["Giving animals 'safe harbor,' op-ed by Robert Bonnie, economist at Environmental Defense Fund, The Washington Times, October 15, 1996.] that gives landowners new incentives to help endangered species on their property.
* "'2000" - Seven of the world's largest corporations join Environmental Defense in a partnership to address global warming, setting firm targets to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. [Big firms Join to Share Greenhouse-Gas Cuts," by Peter Behr, Washington Post, October 18, 2000.] ["7 Companies Agree to Cut Gas Emissions," by Andrew C. Revkin, The New York Times, October 18 2000]
* 2001 - Helped create the 1,200-mile-long
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve.
* 2004 - The first
FedExhybrid electric trucks hit the road, the result of a four-year partnership with FedEx to transform truck technology. The new vehicles cut smog-forming pollution by 65%, reduce soot by 96%—and go 57% farther on a gallon of fuel.
* 2006 - Co-authored the California
Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006with Natural Resources Defense Council. ["Officials Reach California Deal to Cut Emissions," by Felicity Barringer, The New York Times, August 31, 2006] ["California, Taking Big Gamble, Ties to Curb Greenhouse Gases," by Felicity Barringer, The New York Times, September 15, 2006]
* 2007 - Co-founded
United States Climate Action Partnership (US-CAP), a coalition of major corporations and environmental groups supporting action on global warming, including a market-based carbon emissionscap. (Corporate participants include GE, DuPontand Duke Energy; non-profit groups involved are Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Natural Resources Defense Counciland the World Resources Institute, a co-founder). ["A Coalition for Firm Limit on Emissions," by Felicity Barringer, The New York Times, January 19, 2007.]
Helped negotiate an environmental platform of
Texas Pacific's buyout of TXU. ["TXU sale could cost $32 billion," by Janet Wilson, The Los Angeles Times, February 24, 2007.] ["Utility to Limit New Coal Plants in Big Buyout," by Felicity Barringer and Andrew Ross Sorkin, The New York Times, February 25, 2007.] ["TXU bidder seeing green: Buyout group promises only 3 new coal plants, is likely to cut prices," by Elizabeth Souder, Dallas Morning News, February 25, 2007.] ["Energy Firm Accepts $45 Billion Takeover; Buyers Made Environmental Pledge," by Steven Mufson and David Cho, The Washington Post, February 26, 2007.] ["Texas Pacific and KKR to drop coal plant plans if deal succeeds," by Siobhan Kennedy and Tom Bawden, The Times (London), February 26, 2007.] ["A $45 Billion Buyout With Many Shades of Green," by Andrew Ross Sorkin, The New York Times, February 26, 2007.] ["Utility sale is boon for green activists: The largest such buyout ever, of Texas' TXU giant, includes benefits for consumers too," by Janet Wilson and Peter Pae, Los Angeles Times, February 26, 2007.] ["Buyout group would ax coal plants," by Felicity Barringer and Andrew Ross Sorkin, The International Herald Tribune, February 26, 2007.] ["TXU to take buyout $45 billion deal would kill plans for 8 of 11 coal plants; price cuts also predicted," by Elizabeth Souder, the Dallas Morning News, February 26, 2007.] ["Environmentalists hail takeover plan for Texas utility," by John Donnelly, The Boston Globe, February 26, 2007.] ["$45 billion utility sale an environmental watershed," by Andrew Ross Sorkin, The International Herald Tribune, February 27, 2007.] ["Power failure came before TXU buyout: CEO has focused on shareholders but failed to connect with others," by Elizabeth Souder, Sudeep Reddy and Randy Lee Loftis, The Dallas Morning News, March 4, 2007.] ["Environmental Group Behind the TXU Deal Hires a Banker," by Andrew Ross Sorkin and Felicity Barringer, The New York Times, March 8, 2007.] ["The Big Deal Goes Green," by Cathy Booth Thomas, Time magazine, March 12, 2007.] ["At a Glance," Investment Dealers' Digest, March 12, 2007.] ["Hugging the Tree-Huggers: Why so many companies are suddenly linking up with eco groups. Hint: Smart business," by John Carey, with Michael Arndt, Business Week, March 12, 2007.] ["Marching With a Mouse," by Thomas L. Friedman, The New York Times, March 16, 2007.] ["Climate shift: some environmental groups are sitting down with big business. But others say the fate of the planet is non-negotiable," by Daniels Brook, The Boston Globe, March 18, 2007.] [The Eyes of Texas Are Still on TXU," by Heather Green, Business Week, March 19, 2007.]
For contributions to the
Endangered Species Act, including inventing the Safe Harbor concept
For initiating the recent campaign to remove the
O'Shaughnessy Damin Hetch Hetchy Valleyin Yosemite National Park["Dam Dispute Losses a Flood of Emotions," by John M. Glionna, The Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2007.] ["Groups to Oppose $1.6B San Francisco Water Deal Unless Alternatives Studies," by Rochelle Williams, The Bong Buyer, August 19, 2007.] ["An Effort to Undo an Old Reservoir," by Dean E. Murphy, The New York Times, October 15, 2002. "Bring Back Hetch Hetchy?" The New York Times, The New York Times, October 19, 2002.] ["S.F. to Fight Reservoir Rent Hike: U.S. wants $8 million a year for the Hetch Hetchy facility in Yosemite National Park, up from the $30,000 the city has paid for decades," by Lee Romney, Los Angeles Times, February 4, 2004.] ["National Briefing West: California: A Call to Drain Yosemite Reservoir," by Dean E. Murphy, The New York Times, September 28, 2004.] ["Removal of Yosemite Dam to Be Studied; A state agency will consider restoration of the Hetch Hetchy Valley," by Lee Romney, Los Angeles Times, November 12, 2004.] ["Parting the waters of what once was: Revisiting the ceaseless dream of the Hetch Hetchy Valley moves us closer to the lost sanctuaries of the world," by Thomas Curwen, Los Angeles Times, April 5, 2005.] ["Is this Dam Worth a Dam? There's a movement afoot to pull down old or ecologically unsound dams, starting with this one," by J. Madeleine Nash, Time magazine, July 18, 2007.] ["Conservation campaign is growing to remove national park's dam and return valley to its natural state: Call to restore Yosemite's hidden wonders," by Dan Glaister, The Guardian (London), October 31, 2005.] ["Half a Hetchy study: State's review doesn't resolve debate," editorial, Sacramento Bee (California), July 20, 2006.] ["Hetch Hetchy plan feasible report says: But cost to restore the valley could be much higher than estimated," by Matt Weiser, Sacramento Bee (California), July 20, 2006.]
Regional offices more focused on local issues and policies include:
Austin, TX; Boulder, CO; San Francisco, CA; Los Angeles, CA; Sacramento, CA; Washington, D.C.; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, MA
Critics on the American right have argued that not all of the EDF's policies have always been beneficial to either the environment or to humanity. Writer Christopher C. Horner, for example, has compared the spread of
malariaafter the DDT ban that EDF sponsored to a deliberate genocide, citing a quotation from a spokesman of EDF saying: "This is as sure a way to get rid of them as any." [Horner, Christopher C. "The Politically-Incorrect Guide to Global Warming and Environmentalism." Regnery Publishing, Inc. February 12, 2007]
Jon Berlau, author of the book "Eco-Freaks", has also argued that EDF and later the
Clinton administration, due to an "earth-worshiping mentality," interfered with operations of the US Army Core of Engineers via judicial activism with the aid of Judge Charles Scwartz, resulting in the forestalling of levee reinforcement that led to Katrinagateshortly after Hurricane Katrina. This, Berlau argues, was the prime motivation behind "contempt for human life and safety, all for the sake of a few fish and mosquitoes." This was offered as a counter to the conspiracy theorythat the Bush administration was behind Katrinagate in an effort to wipe out blacks. [Berlau, Jon. "Eco-Freaks: Environmentalism is Hazardous to Your Health." p. 181-185. Thomas Nelson Publishing. November 28, 2006.]
Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Defense websites
* [http://www.edf.org Environmental Defense Fund homepage]
* [http://www.fightglobalwarming.com Fightglobalwarming.com] (In partnership with the Ad Council)
* [http://www.oceansalive.org OceansAlive.org]
* [http://www.backfromthebrink.org BackFromTheBrink.org]
* [http://www.keepoceansclean.org KeepOceansClean.org] created by
* "Memories and More: Saving a species," The New York Times, December 30. 2001.
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