John Murray (oceanographer)


John Murray (oceanographer)

Sir John Murray KCB (3 March 1841 – 16 March 1914) was a pioneering Scots-Canadian oceanographer and marine biologist.

Murray was born at Cobourg, Ontario, Canada, to Scottish parents who had emigrated seven years earlier. He returned to Scotland to study, firstly at Stirling High School, and then at the University of Edinburgh, but soon left to join a whaling expedition to Spitsbergen as ships' surgeon in 1868.

He returned to Edinburgh to complete his studies in geology under Sir Archibald Geikie and natural philosophy under Peter Guthrie Tait. Tait introduced Murray to Charles Wyville Thomson who had been appointed to lead the Challenger Expedition. In 1872, Murray joined Wyville Thomson as his assistant on this four-year expedition to explore the deep oceans of the globe. After Wyville Thompson succumbed to the stress of publishing the reports of the Challenger Expedition, Murray took over, and edited and published over 50 volumes of reports, which were completed in 1896. He was knighted (K.C.B.) in 1898. Murray was killed when his car overturned near his home on 16 March 1914 at Kirkliston, Edinburgh; he is buried at the nearby Dean Kirkyard.

In 1884 [ [http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/features/featurefirst10042.html Overview of Dunstaffnage ik Marine Laboratory ] ] , Murray set up the Marine Laboratory at Granton, Edinburgh, the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. In 1894, this laboratory was moved to Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, on the Firth of Clyde, and became the University Marine Biological Station, Millport, the forerunner of today's Scottish Association for Marine Science at Dunstaffnage, near Oban, Argyll and Bute.

In 1909, Murray wrote to the Norwegian government that if they would lend the "Michael Sars" vessel to him for a four-month research cruise, under Johan Hjort's scientific command, then Murray would pay all expenses. After a winter of preparation, this resulted in the by that time most ambitious oceanographic research cruise ever. The 1912 Murray and Hjort book "The Depths of the Ocean" quickly became a classic for marine naturalists and oceanographers.

Murray is credited as the father of modern oceanography, and was the first person to use the term "oceanography". He was also the first to note the existence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and of oceanic trenches. He also noted the presence of deposits derived from the Saharan desert in deep ocean sediments and published a vast number of papers on his findings. His last major contribution to science was coordinating a bathymetric survey of 562 of Scotland's freshwater lochs in 1897, involving over 60,000 individual depth soundings, which were published in 6 volumes in 1910. He was president of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society from 1898 to 1904.

He was awarded the Clarke Medal by the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1900. His name is remembered in the "John Murray Laboratories" at the University of Edinburgh, the John Murray Society at the University of Newcastle, and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency research vessel, the S.V. "Sir John Murray". In addition, the "Cirrothauma murrayi" octopus, which lives on depths from 1500 m to 4500 m and lacks object recognition abilities, is named after Murray.

In 1911, he founded the Alexander Agassiz Medal, awarded by the National Academy of Sciences, in memory of his friend Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910).

Notes

External links

* [http://www.mar-eco.no/learning-zone/backgrounders/chemistry/The_Secrets_of_the_Deep On the 1910 Murray and Hjort expedition and the "Cirrothauma murrayi" octopus]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • John Murray — is the name of quite a few people in various fields::Note: Each section is roughly in chronological order.Arts and literature* John Murray (1745–1793), founder of John Murray (publisher) * John Murray (1778 1843), second head of the publishing… …   Wikipedia

  • Murray, Sir John — ▪ Canadian oceanographer born March 3, 1841, Cobourg, Ontario, Canada died March 16, 1914, near Kirkliston, West Lothian [now in Edinburgh], Scotland       Scots naturalist and one of the founders of oceanography, whose particular interests were… …   Universalium

  • Edward John Eyre — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Edward Jonh Eire. Edward John Eyre (1815 1901), junto con su amigo originario Wylie, fue el primer blanco en cruzar el sur de Australia de este a oeste, viajando a través de la Nullarbor Plain de Adelaide a Albany.… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Иностранные члены РАН за всю историю существования — Полный список иностранных членов Российской академии наук (Петербургской Академии наук, Императорской Академии наук, Императорской Санкт Петербургской Академии Наук, Академии наук СССР, Российской академии наук). В соответствии с Уставом РАН… …   Википедия

  • List of people on stamps of Australia — This is a list of people on the postage stamps of Australia. NOTOC compactTOC 2006 Commonwealth Games Gold Medal winners, Australian Antarctic Territory, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, See also New South Wales 1850 1912 *Charles… …   Wikipedia

  • Stirling High School — Infobox UK school name = Stirling High School size = 130px latitude = longitude = dms = motto = Tempori Parendum approx = 12th century type = State religion = president = head label = Rector head = Patricia Scullion r head label = r head = chair… …   Wikipedia

  • Scottish Environment Protection Agency — The Scottish Environment Protection Agency [http://www.sepa.org.uk (SEPA)] is a powerful non departmental public body in Scotland sponsored by the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department. SEPA was established by the… …   Wikipedia

  • Scottish National Antarctic Expedition — The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (SNAE), 1902–04, was organised and led by William Speirs Bruce, a natural scientist and former medical student from the University of Edinburgh. Bruce had spent most of the 1890s engaged on expeditions… …   Wikipedia

  • William Speirs Bruce — Infobox person name = William Speirs Bruce image size = 200px name = William Speirs Bruce birth date = birth date|1867|8|1 birth place = London, United Kingdom nationality = Scottish death date = death date and age|1921|10|28|1867|8|1 death place …   Wikipedia

  • Expedición Antártica Nacional Escocesa — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El Scotia, barco de la Expedición SNAE en el hielo de la Isla Laurie, Islas Orcadas del Sur, 1903–1904 La Expedición Antártica Nacional Escocesa (SNAE) de 1902 1904 fue organizada y dirigida por William S …   Wikipedia Español


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.