The Cairn of Barnenez (also: Barnenez Tumulus, Barnenez Mound etc; in Breton "Karn Barnenez"; in French: "Cairn de Barnenez" or "Tumulus de Barnenez") is a
Neolithicmonument located near Plouezoc'h, on the Kernéléhen peninsula in northern Finistère, Brittany( France). It dates to the early Neolithic, about 4,500 BC; it is considered one of the earliest megalithic monuments in Europe. It is also remarkable for the presence of megalithic art.
Radiocarbon dates indicate that the first phase of the monument was erected between 4,850 and 4,250 BC, and the second phase between 4,450 and 4,000 BC.
Pottery found in and around the monument indicates that it underwent a period of reuse in the
Bronze Age, in the 3rd millennium BC.
Recognition as an ancient monument
The cairn was first mapped in 1807, in the context of the Napoleonic
cadaster. Its first scientific recognition took place in the context of an academic congress in Morlaix in 1850, when it was classified as a tumulus.
Privately owned until the 1950s, the cairn was used as a
quarryfor paving stones. This activity, which threatened to destroy the monument, was only halted after the discovery of several of its chambers in the 1950s. The local community then took control of the site.
Restoration and excavation
The cairn was restored between 1954 and 1968. At the same time, vegetation was removed from the mound and systematic
excavationtook place in and around the monument.
Today, the Barnenez cairn is a 72 m long, up to 25 m wide and over 8 m high. It is built of 13,000 to 14,000 tons of stone. It contains 11 chambers entered by separate passages. The mound has steep facades and a stepped profile. Several internal walls either represent earlier facades or served the stability of the structure. The cairn consists of relatively small blocks of stone, with only the chambers being truly megalithic in character.The monument overlooks the Bay of
Morlaix, probably a fertile coastal plain at the time of its erection.
The monument is the result of at least two phases of building.
Cairn 1, before 4,500 BC
In a first phase, a slightly trapezoidal mound of 32 m by 9 to 13 m was erected. It contained 5 chambers and was surrounded by a double kerb. The first phase favoured the use of
Cairn 2, circa 4,200 - 3,900 BC (?)
In a second phase, an extension with six further chambers was added in the west. At the same time, Cairn 1 was enveloped in a wider and taller structure; its passages had to be extended. More
granitewas used in this phase.
The 11 chambers of the Barnenez cairn are of the type known as "
Dolmenà couloir" in French archaeological terminology. The term translates roughly as " passage grave". They are built of large slabs of slateand granite. Originally, all the chambers were entirely enclosed by the mound. The fact that several of them are partially exposed now is the result of modern quarrying.
Each of the 11 chambers is reached from the southeast via a long narrow passage (7-12 m long). They are arranged parallel to each other. Shapes and construction techniques differ slightly. In nine cases, narrow passages lead to corbelled chambers. Normally, the corbel vault rests on orthostats, in one chamber it actually sits on the ground, forming a true "
tholos". The passages have slab-built or dry stone walls and are covered with slabs. One of the chambers has a dry-stone vaulted ante-chamber.
One cubic meter of the Barnenez cairn contains 1,500 kg of stone. It is estimated that the quarrying, fashioning, transport and construction of such an amount represents about four work days for a single worker (assuming a 10-hour day). The original monument, Cairn 1, had a volume of circa 2,000 cubic metres; it is built of 1,000 tons of granite and 3,000 tons of dolerite. It would thus have required 15,000 to 20,000 working days; in other words, it would have taken 200 workers three months to erect Cairn 1 alone. In its final form, the Barnenez mound is nearly three times as big as the first phase.
Engraved symbols occur in several of the chambers and passages. They depict bows, axes, wave symbols or snakes and a repeated U-shaped sign. One of the carved slabs is in secondary use; it was originally part of a different structure, an interesting parallel to the situation in several other such monuments, including
Gavrinis. The symbols on the engraved blocks resemble those found in other megalithic monuments in Brittany; in broader terms they belong to the cultural phenomenon described as megalithic art. One of the recurring symbols is sometimes interpreted as an anthropomorphicdepiction (the so-called "Dolmen Goddess").
Material from the original period of use
Only Cairn 2, namely chambers A, C and D, contained
Neolithicfinds at the time of excavation. They included pottery, polished stone axes (of dolerite), flintblades and arrowheads.
Bronze Age pottery
Pottery sherds found outside the monument indicate that it was reused in the
Bronze Age(3rd millennium BC). A copper dagger and a barbed arrowhead are of Chalcolithicdate.
Similar, possibly contemporary, monuments are known at 22 other locations in France and on
Jersey. Breton examples are Larcuste-Colpo, Le Bono, Petit Mont, Ty-Floc´h, Gavrinis, Île Carn, Ploudalmézeau and Guennoc (I´ile Gaignoc - sometimes spelt Guénioc) off the shore at Landéda. Those located on islands are generally better preserved. Chamber 3 B at Guennoc contains a small standing stonenear the entrance.
An exhibition in the modern entrance building explains the results of scientific excavation and displays some objects from the site.
* Briard J. & Fediaevsky N.: "Mégalithes de Bretagne" 1987
* Charles-Tanguy Le Roux et Yannick Lecerf, "Le grand cairn de Barnenez - Mausolée néolithique", Monum, Ed. du Patrimoine, coll. « Itinéraires du patrimoine », 2003 ISBN 2-858226-71-7
* [http://www.monum.fr/visitez/decouvrir/fiche.dml?lang=fr&id=19 Official French website]
* [http://www.paleologos.com/barnenez.htm French site with many images]
* [http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10394 Information on "The Megalithic Portal"]
ources of translation
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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