- Uruk period
The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric
Chalcolithicto Early Bronze Ageperiod in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid periodand succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period. [Sumer and the Sumerians, by Harriet E. W. Crawford, p 69 ] Named after the Sumerian city of Uruk, this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia. It was followed by the Sumerian civilization. [Sumer and the Sumerians, by Harriet E. W. Crawford, p 75 ] The late Uruk period (34th to 32nd centuries) saw the gradual emergence of the cuneiform scriptand corresponds to the Early Bronze Age.
These early city-states had strong signs of government organization (though social stratification was not strongly evident until very late in this period and the beginning of the
Early Dynastic Period, beginning around 3100 BC), evident even in items such as cheap, mass-produced beveled rim bowls which were made to be discarded. These bowls were handed out at community outings, such as large-scale constructions. The cities grew to cover up to 250 acres (1 km²) and up to 10,000–20,000 people by the end of the period.
Periodization is after archaeological layers at
Uruk. Thus, Uruk XVIII–XIV are not part of the "Uruk period" proper but are comprised by the Ubaid period. The Uruk period proper corresponds to the layers Uruk XIV–IV, with the late phase Uruk IV lasting ca. 3300–3100 BC. Uruk III reaches up to 3000 BC and into the Early Dynastic period (not to be confused with the Ur IIIperiod of the 21st century BC, where the numbering refers to royal dynasties, not archaeological layers)
History of Sumer
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URUK PERIOD — (C. 4000–3200 B.C.) A prehistoric period in Mesopotamia named after its most important archaeological site, Uruk. It is in turn divided into several phases (Early, Middle, and Late), as suggested by the 18 successive layers of the Uruk site… … Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia
Uruk — Localisation Pays Irak … Wikipédia en Français
Uruk — … Deutsch Wikipedia
Uruk (disambiguation) — Uruk can refer to:* Uruk period the archaeological culture or time period * Uruk hai the fictional creatures from J. R. R. Tolkien s writings * Uruk Sulcus terrain on GanymedeSee also: Erech (disambiguation) … Wikipedia
Uruk — An important Sumerian city that seems to have been the first large urban center in Mesopotamia and the world. Uruk (modern Tell al Warka), from whose name the modern name Iraq mayhavederived, lies within the city limits of Warka, an Iraqi city … Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary
URUK — (modern WARKA) Important Mesopotamian city in the southern plains, situated along the old course of the Euphrates. The site was first excavated by William Loftus in 1853–1855 and has been excavated almost continuously by German teams of… … Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia
Période d'Uruk — Masse d armes de la période d Uruk, Tello, v. 3500–2900 av. J. C., Musée du Louvre. La période d Uruk est un stade de développement protohistorique de la Mésopotamie, qui couvre en gros le IVe millénaire av. J. C. Comme son nom l indique, elle a… … Wikipédia en Français
Período de Uruk — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Holoceno ↑ Pleistoceno Holoceno Neolítico Cultura Halaf Cultura Hassuna Samarra Cultura Mehrgarh Cultura de El Obeid Cultura de Uruk Edad del Cobre Edad del Bronce … Wikipedia Español
Ubaid period — The tell (mound) of Ubaid ( ar. عبيد) near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric Pottery Neolithic to Chalcolithic culture, which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. The Ubaid… … Wikipedia
JEMDET-NASR PERIOD — (C. 3200 – C. 3000) A prehistoric period named after the site Jemdet Nasr in southern Iraq, which is mainly manifested by distinct cultural artifacts (pottery, cylinder seals, cuneiform tablets) in southern Mesopotamian sites. The term is not… … Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia