- Guido Castelnuovo
**Guido Castelnuovo**(14 August 1865 –27 April 1952) was an ItalianJew ishmathematician . His father,Enrico Castelnuovo , was anovelist and campaigner for the unification of Italy. Castelnuovo is best known for his contributions to the field ofalgebraic geometry , though his contributions to the study of statistics and probability are also significant.**Life****Early life**Castelnuovo was born in

Venice .After attending a grammar school at

Foscarini in Venice, he went toPadua where he graduated in 1886. At theUniversity of Padua he was taught byGiuseppe Veronese . After his graduation, he sent one of his papers toCorrado Segre , whose replies he found remarkably helpful. It marked the beginning of a long period of collaboration.**Career**Castelnuovo spent one year in

Rome to research advanced geometry. After that he was appointed as an assistant ofEnrico D'Ovidio at theUniversity of Turin , where he was strongly influenced by Corrado Segre. Here he worked withAlexander von Brill andMax Noether . In 1891 he moved back to Rome to work at the chair of Analytic and Projective Geometry. Here he was a colleague ofLuigi Cremona , his former teacher, and took over his job when the latter died in 1903. He also founded the University of Rome's School of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences (1927). He influenced a younger generation of Italian mathematicians and statisticians, includingCorrado Gini andFrancesco Paolo Cantelli .**Retirement and World War II**Castelnuovo retired from teaching in 1935. It was a period of great political difficulty in Italy. In 1922

Mussolini had risen to power and in 1938 a large number of anti-semiticlaw s were declared, which excluded him, like other Jews, from public work. With the rise ofNazism , he was forced into hiding. However, duringWorld War II , he organised and taught secret courses for Jewish students — the latter were not allowed to attend university either.**Final years and death**After the liberation of Rome, Castelnuovo was appointed as a special commissioner of the

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in June 1944. He was given the task to repair the damage done to Italian scientific institutions by the twenty years of Mussolini's rule. He became president of theAccademia dei Lincei until his death and was elected a member of theAcadémie des Sciences in Paris. On5 December 1949 , he became a life senator of the Italian Republic.Castelnuovo died at the age of 86 on

27 April 1952 in Rome.**Work**In

Turin Castelnuovo was strongly influenced byCorrado Segre . In this period he published high-quality work onalgebra iccurve s. He also made a major step in reinterpreting the work onlinear series byAlexander von Brill andMax Noether (Brill-Noether theory ).Castelnuovo had his own theory about how Mathematics should be taught. His courses were divided into two: first a general overview of mathematics, and then an in-depth theory of algebraic curves. He has said about this approach:

He also taught courses on

algebraic function s andabelian integral s. Here, he treated, among other things,Riemann surfaces ,non-Euclidean geometry ,differential geometry ,interpolation andapproximation , andprobability theory . He found the latter the most interesting, because as a relatively recent one, the relationship between the deduction and the empirical contribution was more clear. In 1919, he published "Calcolo della probabilità e applicazioni," an early textbook on the subject. He also wrote a book oncalculus , "Le origini del calcolo infinitesimale nell'era moderna".Castelnuovo's most important work was done in the field of

algebraic geometry . In the early 1890s he published three famous papers, including one with the first use of thecharacteristic linear series of a family of curves . TheCastelnuovo-Severi inequality was co-named after him. He collaborated withFederigo Enriques on the theory of surfaces. This collaboration started in 1892 when Enriques was only a student, but grew further over the next 20 years: they submitted their work to theRoyal Prize in Mathematics by theAccademia dei Lincei in 1902, but were not given the prize because they had sent it jointly instead of under one name. Both received the prize in later years.Another theorem named partly after Castelnuovo is the

Kronecker-Castelnuovo theorem (1894): "If the sections of an irreduciblealgebraic surface , having at most isolated singular points, with a general tangent plane turn out to be reducible curves, then surface is eitherruled surface and in fact a "scroll", or theVeronese surface ." Kronecker never published it but stated it in a lecture. Castelnuovo proved it. In total, Castelnuovo published over 100 articles, books and memoirs.**ee also***

Italian school of algebraic geometry **Sources and further reading***

* [*http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/References/Castelnuovo.html 17 references for further reading*] Some in English, most in Italian.

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**Guido Castelnuovo**— Guido Castelnuovo, ca 1930 Guido Castelnuovo (* 14. August 1865 in Venedig; † 27. April 1952 in Rom), war ein italienischer Mathematiker, der hauptsächlich im Bereich der algebraischen Geometrie arbeitete. Der Sohn eines bekannten Romanciers… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Castelnuovo**— (italienisch für ‚Neue Burg‘) steht für: die Burg Noarna im Trentino (historisch) Castelnuovo (Film) (1999), einen Film von Stefano Salvati Geografie: Castelnuovo (Assisi), ein Ort Provinz Perugia Castelnuovo (Trentino), ein Ort in der Provinz… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Castelnuovo (surname)**— Castelnuovo is an Italian surname which loosely translates as Newcastle in English. It may refer to:* Enrico Castelnuovo (1839 1915), Italian writer * Guido Castelnuovo (1865 1952), Italian mathematician * Mario Castelnuovo Tedesco (1895–1968),… … Wikipedia**CASTELNUOVO, ENRICO**— (1839–1915), Italian author. Born in Florence, Castelnuovo spent most of his life in Venice, where for many years he taught at the commercial high school. He was the father of the well known mathematician Guido Castelnuovo. He wrote literary… … Encyclopedia of Judaism**Castelnuovo-de Franchis theorem**— In mathematics, the Castelnuovo de Franchis theorem is a classical result on complex algebraic surfaces. If X is such a surface, projective and non singular, suppose given two differentials of the first kind : omega; i with i = 1,2on X which are… … Wikipedia**Castelnuovo–Mumford regularity**— In algebraic geometry, the Castelnuovo–Mumford regularity of a coherent sheaf F over projective space Pn is the smallest integer r such that it is r regular, meaning that whenever i > 0. The regularity of a subscheme is defined to be … Wikipedia**CASTELNUOVO (G.)**— CASTELNUOVO GUIDO (1865 1952) Mathématicien italien dont les travaux ont porté principalement sur la géométrie algébrique. Né à Venise, Castelnuovo fut l’élève de Véronèse à Padoue; assistant à Turin, il eut avec C. Segre de nombreux entretiens… … Encyclopédie Universelle**Enrico Castelnuovo**— See also Castelnuovo. Enrico Castelnuovo (February 12, 1839 February 16, 1915) was an Italian writer who had an active role in the Italian unification movement.He was the father of Guido Castelnuovo. Literary works * Il quaderno della zia , 1872… … Wikipedia**Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco**— Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar … Wikipedia Español**Enriques**— Federigo Enriques (1914) Federigo Enriques (* 5. Januar 1871 in Livorno; † 14. Juni 1946 in Rom) war ein italienischer Mathematiker, der hauptsächlich im Bereich der algebraischen Geometrie und Geometrie arbeitete. Er wuchs in Pi … Deutsch Wikipedia