- War effort
politicsand military planning, a war effort refers to a coordinated mobilizationof society's resources—both industrial and human—towards the support of a militaryforce. Depending on the militarization of the culture, the relative size of the armed forces and the society supporting them, the style of government, and the popular support for the military objectives, such war effort can range from a small industry to complete command of society.
Although many societies were retroactively perceived to be engaged in a war effort, the concept was not generally used until the 19th century, when the leaders of the
French Revolutioncalled for the " levée en masse" and a general mobilization of society to prevent monarchistforces from reclaiming control of the French government. The concept was subsequently adapted and used by Prussia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, especially during World War Iand World War II. The term "war effort" was coined in conjunction with these efforts.
Although certain societies, especially
nomadic raiders and mobile cavalry societies such as the Mongols, specialized in providing war effort-like support for their armies, the idea of a specialized "war effort" that diverted supplies, means of production, and people to military support came into general use only with the increased specialization of the industrial revolution. Previously, most military supplies were either common elements of the economy (food, clothing, horses, gunpowder) or specialized instruments produced only for war purposes by industries dedicated to the task (mainly weapons and vehicles). Crossover use of peacetime elements of society and economy for wartime uses became important due to scarcity of manpower (due to the large size of armies) and specialized materials used for war production ( rubber, aluminum, steel, etc). The complex decisions involved in conversion to wartime use also necessitated organization and a bureaucracy; the term "war effort" was coined to describe these collective tasks. Implicit in the concept of "war effort" was that the entire society was expected to contribute in some way; this served the double purpose of improving moraleas well as resource conservation.
* Collection of Photographs of World War II [http://www.picture-history.com/war-effort-index-001.htm War Effort] in the United States
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Look at other dictionaries:
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