Television studio


Television studio

A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, either for live television, for recording live to tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for postproduction. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons. These rooms are connected via intercom, and personnel will be divided among these workplaces.

tudio floor

The studio floor is the actual stage on which the actions that will be recorded take place. A studio floor has the following characteristics and installations:

* decoration and/or sets
* cameras on pedestals
* microphones
* lighting rigs and the associated controlling equipment.
* several video monitors for visual feedback from the production control room
* a small public address system for communication
* A glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual contact is usually desired, but not always possible

While a production is in progress, the following people work in the studio floor.

* The on-screen "talent" themselves, and any guests - the subjects of the show.
* A floor director, who has overall charge of the studio area, and who relays timing and other information from the director.
* One or more camera operators who operate the television cameras, though in some instances these can also be operated from PCR using remote heads.
* Possibly a teleprompter operator, especially if this is a news broadcast.

Production control room

The production control room (also known as the 'gallery' or Studio Control Room (SCR)) is the place in a television studio in which the composition of the outgoing program takes place. Facilities in a PCR include:

* a video monitor wall, with monitors for program, preview, videotape machines, cameras, graphics and other video sources
* switcher a device where all video sources are controlled and taken to air. Also known as a special effects generator
* audio mixing console and other audio equipment such as effects devices
* character generator creates the majority of the names and full screen graphics that are inserted into the program
* digital video effects and/or still frame devices (if not integrated in the vision mixer)
* technical director's station, with waveform monitors, vectorscopes and the camera control units or remote control panels for the camera control units (CCUs)
* VTRs may also be located in the PCR, but are also often found in the central machine room

Master control room

The master control room houses equipment that is too noisy or runs too hot for the production control room. It also makes sure that wire lengths and installation requirements keep within manageable lengths, since most high-quality wiring runs only between devices in this room. This can include:

* The actual circuitry and connection boxes of the vision mixer, DVE and character generator devices
* camera control units
* VTRs
* patch panels for reconfiguration of the wiring between the various pieces of equipment.

In a broadcast station in the US, master control room or "MCR" is the place where the on-air signal is controlled. It may include controls to play back programs and commercials, switch local or network feeds, record satellite feeds and monitor the transmitter(s). The description of an MCR given above usually refers to an equipment rack room, which is usually separate from the MCR itself. The term "studio" usually refers to a place where a particular local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal goes from the production control room to MCR and then out to the transmitter.

Other facilities

A television studio usually has other rooms with no technical requirements beyond program and audio monitors. Among them are:
* one or more make-up and changing rooms
* a reception area for crew, talent, and visitors, commonly called the green room.

ee also

* Broadcasting
* Broadcast engineering
* Outside broadcasting
* Television crew
* Master control
* Transmission Control Room
* Central Apparatus Room

External links

* [http://www.maidstonestudios.com The Maidstone Studios - The UK's Largest Single TV Studio]
* [http://www.newscaststudio.com NewscastStudio, the Internet's television news set design resource]


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