- Anti-nuclear movement in the United States
The anti-nuclear movement in the United States is comprised of more than forty loosely-affiliated largely-
grass rootsanti-nuclear groups opposing (see Nuclear debate) the generation of nuclear powereither locally, nationally or world-wide.
The movement succeeded in delaying construction of or halting commitments to build some new nuclear plants. [ [http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/nuclear-politics.html Nuclear Politics] ] [ [http://www.newsday.com/search/ny-history-hs9shore,0,4295595.story Lights Out at Shoreham: Anti-nuclear activism spurs the closing of a new $6 billion plant] ]
Anti-nuclearcampaigns that captured national public attention in the 1970s involved the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant, and Three Mile Island. [http://books.google.com/books?id=Kn6YhNtyVigC&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&dq=shoreham+nuclear+power+plant+protests&source=web&ots=rmz3LVr6tR&sig=sHGK4uiUQ8KKAynuBqZa7NWqYzo Social Protest and Policy Change: Ecology, Antinuclear, and Peace Movements] p. 44.]
A number of scientists and engineers have expressed reservations about nuclear power, including:
Barry Commoner, S. David Freeman, John Gofman, Amory Lovins, Arjun Makhijani, Gregory Minorand Joseph Romm.
More recent campaigning has related to several nuclear power plants, the proposed
Yucca Mountainwaste repository, [ [http://www.commondreams.org/news2008/0111-03.htm Four Score Organizations Express Opposition to Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Dump] ] [http://www.sierraclub.org/nuclearwaste/yucca_factsheet.asp Deadly Nuclear Waste Transport] ] the Hanford Site, [http://www.heartofamericanorthwest.org/index_page.html Hanford History] ] the Nevada Test Site, [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE7DD153DF933A2575BC0A96F948260 22 Arrested in Nuclear Protest] ] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, [http://www.mindfully.org/Nucs/2003/Livermore-Lab-Protest11aug03.htm Hundreds Protest at Livermore Lab] ] [http://www.mercurynews.com/breakingnews/ci_8654786?nclick_check=1 More than 80 people arrested at annual protest at Livermore lab] ] and transportation of nuclear waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory. [http://www.nuclearactive.org/CCNS/ccnsindex.html About CCNS] ]
Concerns of the movement
The growth of the nuclear industry in the U.S. occurred as the
environmental movementwas being formed. Environmentalists saw the advantages of nuclear power in reducing air pollution, but became critical of nuclear technology on other grounds. The view that nuclear power was better for the environment than conventional fuels was partially undermined in the late 1960s when major controversy erupted over the effects of waste heat from nuclear plants (not the only kind of power plant to eject waste heat) on water quality. The nuclear industry gradually and reluctantly took action to reduce thermal pollution by building cooling towers or ponds for plants on inland waterways.Walker, J. Samuel (2004). "Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective" (Berkeley: University of Califonia Press), p. 10.] Another concern was the effect of radiation emissions from nuclear plants. Several scientists challenged the prevailing view that the small amounts of radiation released by nuclear power plants during normal operation were not a problem. They argued that the routine releases were a severe threat to public health and could cause tens of thousands of deaths from cancer each year. This exchange of views about radiation risks caused further uneasiness about nuclear power, especially among those unable to evaluate the conflicting claims.
Another issue was reactor safety. The large size of nuclear plants ordered during the late 1960s raised new safety questions and created fears of a severe reactor accident that would send large quantities of radiation into the environment. In the early 1970s a contentious controversy over the performance of emergency core cooling systems in nuclear power plants, designed to prevent a core meltdown. The often popularly sited
China syndromewas discussed in the popular media; however this and many other 'potential accidents' are completely mythical and have no scientific foundation.Walker, J. Samuel (2004). "Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective" (Berkeley: University of Califonia Press), p. 11.]
These issues, together with a series of other environmental, technical, and public health questions, made nuclear power the source of acute controversy. Public support, which was strong in the early 1960s, had been shaken.
Forbes magazine, in the September 1975 issue, reported that "the anti-nuclear coalition has been remarkably successful ... [and] has certainly slowed the expansion of nuclear power." By the mid-1970s anti-nuclear activism had moved beyond local protests and politics to gain a wider appeal and influence. Although it lacked a single co-ordinating organization, and did not have uniform goals, it emerged as a movement sharply focused on opposing nuclear power, and the movement's efforts gained a great deal of national attention.
Anti-nuclear campaigns that captured national public attention in the 1970s involved the
Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant, and Three Mile Island. Specific protests have included: [ [http://www.rutlandherald.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080501/OPINION03/805010312/1039/OPINION03 Wikipedia distorts nuclear history] ] [ [http://www.valleyadvocate.com/article.cfm?aid=8218 Nuke Fight Nears Decisive Moment] ]
*May 2, 1977: 1,414 protesters were arrested at the Seabrook nuclear power plant in New Hampshire.
*June 1978: some 12,000 people attended a protest at Seabrook.
*August 1978: almost 500 people were arrested for protesting at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant in California.
*May 1979: an estimated 70,000 people, including the governor of California, attended a march and rally against nuclear power in Washington, D.C.
*June 2, 1979: about 500 people were arrested for protesting construction of the
Black Fox Nuclear Power Plantin Oklahoma.
*June 3, 1979: some 15,000 people attended a rally at the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island, N.Y. and about 600 were arrested.
*June 30, 1979: about 38,000 people attended a protest rally at Diablo Canyon.
*September 23, 1979: some 167 protesters were arrested at
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant.
*June 22, 1980: about 15,000 people attended a protest near the
San Onofre Nuclear Generating Stationin California.
*September 1981: more than 900 protesters were arrested at Diablo Canyon. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E06EED81739F93BA2575AC0A967948260 Arrests Exceed 900 In Coast Nuclear Protest] ]
*May 1984: about 130 demonstrators showed up for start-up day at Diablo Canyon, and five were arrested. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,955276,00.html?promoid=googlep Testing and Protesting] ]
*June 5, 1989: hundreds of demonstrators at Seabrook Station nuclear power plant protested against the plant's first low-power testing, and the police arrested 627 people for trespassing. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE5DB1E3FF936A35755C0A96F948260 Hundreds Arrested Over Seabrook Test] ]
Recent campaigning has related to the
Indian Point Energy Center, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, [ [http://examiner.gmnews.com/news/2007/0628/Front_Page/016.html Oyster Creek's time is up, residents tell board] ] Pilgrim Nuclear Generating Station, [http://www.pilgrimwatch.org/ Pilgrim Watch] ] Salem Nuclear Power Plant, [http://www.unplugsalem.org/ UNPLUG Salem] ] Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, [http://www.newenglandcoalition.org/issues.html Vermont Yankee License Renewal] ] Idaho National Laboratory, [http://www.yellowstonenuclearfree.com/about_us/ Keep Yellowstone Nuclear Free] ] proposed Yucca Mountainwaste repository, the Hanford Site, the Nevada Test Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and transportation of nuclear waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many different groups have been involved in various protests and demonstrations over the years.
More than forty anti-nuclear groups are operating, or have operated, in the United States. These include:
Abalone Alliance, Clamshell Alliance, Greenpeace USA, Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Musicians United for Safe Energy, Natural Resources Defense Council, Nevada Desert Experience, Nuclear Control Institute, Nuclear Information and Resource Service, Public Citizen Energy Program, Shad Alliance, and the Sierra Club.
Abalone Alliance(1977–1985) was a nonviolent civil disobedience group formed to shut down the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant near San Luis Obispo (on the central California coast). They modeled their affinity group-based organizational structure after the Clamshell Alliance which was then protesting the Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant in coastal New Hampshire. The group of activists took the name Abalone Alliance referring to the tens of thousands of wild California red abalonethat were killed in 1974 in Diablo Cove when the unit's plumbing had its first hot flush.
Alliance for Nuclear Accountability
The [http://www.ananuclear.org Alliance for Nuclear Accountability] (ANA) is a network of local, regional and national organizations working collaboratively on issues of nuclear weapons production and waste cleanup. Many of the local groups live downwind and downstream of the United States nuclear weapons complex sites. The member organizations have been monitoring the Department of Energy nuclear weapons and energy programs for more than 20 years. [ [http://www.ananuclear.org Alliance for Nuclear Accountability > Welcome ] ]
Beyond Nuclear aims to educate and activate the public about the need to abandon both nuclear power and nuclear weapons to safeguard our future. Beyond Nuclear campaigns for an energy future that is democratic, sustainable, and benign. [ [http://www.beyondnuclear.org/ Beyond Nuclear] ]
Calvert Cliffs Coordinating Committee
The Calvert Cliffs Coordinating Committee, through its 1971 court case with the
Atomic Energy Commission, was instrumental in bringing about a reorganization of nuclear policy in the USA. Calvert Cliffs has an important place in the history of nuclear power in the USA because it represents an early success for the anti-nuclear movement, which resulted in delayed licensing and construction of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant.
Citizen's Action for Safe Energy
The Citizen's Action for Safe Energy (CASE) group was formed by
Carrie Barefoot Dickersonin 1973 to stop construction of the proposed Black Fox Nuclear Power Plantin Oklahoma. Local citizens feared waste from the nuclear plant would lead to birth defects and other health problems for those who lived nearby. Following years of legal action and protests, it was announced in February 1982 that the plant would not be built. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4182/is_20050928/ai_n15613943 Energy officials say nuclear power comeback not likely to happen] ] [ [http://www.carriedickersonfoundation.com/ Carrie Dickerson Foundation] ]
Citizens Action Network
In July 2008, the Citizens Action Network group called for the shutdown of
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plantafter various problems at the plant in recent years. [ [http://www.timesargus.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080719/NEWS01/807190358/1002/NEWS01&template=printart Nuke watchdog groups say it's time to close Vermont Yankee] ]
Citizens for Safe Power
Citizens for Safe Power led the initial opposition (from 1967 through 1972) to constructing the
Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant. The group failed to stop construction but succeeded in persuading the Nuclear Regulatory Commissionto impose stricter environmental standards and monitoring. During the 1980s, when nuclear opposition was provoked by the Three Mile Island accident, two attempts by referendum (1980 and 1982) at closing the plant were defeated. A third referendum in 1987 was triggered by the Chernobyl disasterin the Ukraine. The referendums all failed despite gaining more than 40% of the vote. Ultimately the questions raised in the referendums by the Maine Nuclear Referendum Committee, and its allied citizen groups, proved persuasive to policy makers who made the ultimate decision for early closure of the plant in 1997.
Clamshell Allianceis an anti-nuclearorganization co-founded by Paul Gunterin 1976, which conducted non-violent demonstrations against nuclear power in New Englandin the late 1970s and 1980s. In April 1977, over 2,000 Clamshell protestors occupied the Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant construction site. 1,414 of these activists were arrested and held in jails and National Guard armories for up to two weeks after refusing bail. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,918965,00.html The Siege of Seabrook] ] In 2007, veterans of the Clamshell Alliance marked the 30th anniversary of its founding with the creation of a website called, "To the Village Square: Nukes, Clams and Democracy", which relates the story of the Clamshell Alliance and why it matters today. [http://www.clamshell-tvs.org/ To the Village Square] ] The Clamshell Alliance opposes all nuclear powerin New England.
Committee for Nuclear Responsibility
Chaired until recently by Dr.
John Gofman, CNR is a non-profit, educational group which provides independent analyses of the health effects and sources of ionizing radiation. [ [http://www.ratical.org/radiation/CNR/ The Committee for Nuclear Responsibility] ]
Concerned Citizens for Nuclear Safety
Concerned Citizens for Nuclear Safety is a non-profit, non-government organization founded in 1988 due to community concerns about nuclear waste transportation from the
Los Alamos National Laboratory, the nation's oldest nuclear weaponsproduction facility, to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the nation's first permanent nuclear weapons waste repository. CCNS has since evolved and grown into a nationally recognized organization known for research, litigation, public education, community outreach and organizing on a range of nuclear issues.
Connecticut Coalition Against Millstone
The Connecticut Coalition Against Millstone is currently mainly concerned about the proposed power boost for Unit 3 at
Millstone Nuclear Power Plant, which is known in the nuclear industry as a “stretch power uprate". [ [http://www.theday.com/re.aspx?re=e3a08c3f-88a7-483d-aeef-a157b55fd2b8 Anti-nuclear Activist Seeks Hearing For Millstone Power Boost Proposal] ]
GreenpeaceUSA website states that:
Few of us want a nuclear plant in our community - we've heard about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl and know that accidents can happen anywhere. So it's completely unacceptable that the U.S. government is pushing for more nukes when most of the rest of the world is saying "so long." [ [http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/campaigns/nuclear Nuclear Issues] ]
Heart of America Northwest
Heart of America Northwest has concerns about the
Hanford site, located in southeastern Washington, which is said to be the most contaminated site in the Western Hemisphere. As much as 450 billion gallons of contaminated wastes have been dumped into unlined soil trenches at Hanford. According to the 2004 Hanford Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement, the US Department of Energyintends to ship several thousand truckloads of radioactive wastefrom nuclear facilities around the country to be stored at Hanford.
Indian Point Safe Energy Coalition
The Indian Point Safe Energy Coalition (IPSEC), formed shortly after the events of September 11, 2001, is an alliance of 70 environmental, health, and public policy organizations concerned with the vulnerability of, and radioactive waste from, the
Indian Point Energy Centerin Buchanan, NY. IPSEC has called for the orderly decommissioning, securing of the irradiated fuel pools, and closure of the Indian Point Energy Center. [ [http://www.ipsecinfo.org/what_is_ipsec.htm What is IPSEC?] ]
Institute for Energy and Environmental Research
Institute for Energy and Environmental Research(IEER) is a Washington, D.C.-area American policy organization (" think tank") located in Takoma Park, Maryland. It provides activists, policy-makers, journalists, and the publicwith scientific and technical information on energy and environmental issues. [ [http://www.ieer.org/pubs/index.html IEER Publications] ] [ [http://www.ieer.org/sdafiles/14-2.pdf Science for Democratic Action] ]
Keep Yellowstone Nuclear Free
The stated mission of Keep Yellowstone Nuclear Free is to protect the citizens, environment, and wildlife of the greater Yellowstone and Grand Teton ecosystems and the Jackson Hole valley from radioactive and hazardous emissions from the
U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, and to elevate public awareness of concerns about the facilities operating at INL.
Long Island Safe Energy Coalition
The Long Island Safe Energy Coalition was among many groups which protested against the
Shoreham Nuclear Power Plantlocated in Long Island, New York. Other groups which were involved included the Lloyd Harbor Study Group, the Farm Bureau, Safe'n Sound (with its Sound Times newspaper), the Shad Alliance(modeled on New Hampshire's Clamshell Alliance), and the Shoreham Opponents Coalition. The plant was completed at a cost of $6 billion but closed in 1989 without generating any commercial electricity. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=DJkZgWKZaCUC&dq=shoreham+nuclear+power+plant+protests The Politics of Nuclear Power: A History of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant] ]
Los Alamos Study Group
Since 1989, the Los Alamos Study Group, based in
Albuquerque, has provided leadership on nuclear disarmament and related issues in New Mexico. The Group's work includes research and scholarship, and education of decision-makers, with particular emphasis on the education and training of young people. Since September 11, 2001, work has increasingly investigated nuclear weapons in the context of aggression abroad and the militarization of US society. The Group's careful, rational approach has helped to build bridges with people in the nuclear laboratories and plants. [ [http://www.lasg.org/who.htm Who We Are] ]
Maryland PIRG, a consumer advocacy and environmental group, has intervened in the state regulatory process that will help determine whether construction of a third reactor at the
Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plantwill be approved. The group has been among the few critics of the reactor proposal, which has strong support among Calvert County residents and government officials. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/01/04/AR2008010404370.html Anti-Nuclear Group Fights Third Reactor] ]
Mothers for Peace
Formed in 1967 by fifteen
Beverly Hillswomen, including actress Donna Reed, Mothers for Peace became a national organization with over 230,000 members in 1971. Members, mostly young mothers, were concerned about the environmental effects of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power on their children. [ [http://books.google.com.au/books?id=ugdHhzX3Fl8C&pg=PA208&lpg=PA208&dq=%22mothers+for+peace%22&source=web&ots=M51d_b8FRB&sig=-8haaSdGyrSn4eTavbhChIU6h3M&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result The Atomic West] p. 208. ]
Musicians United for Safe Energy
Musicians United for Safe Energy(MUSE) was an activistgroup founded by Jackson Browne, Graham Nash, Bonnie Raitt, and John Hall. The group advocated against the use of nuclear energy, forming shortly after the Three Mile Island accident in March 1979. [http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/10/11/nuclear.commentary/ Commentary: Stealth nuke effort should be stopped] ] MUSE organized a series of five No Nukes (film)concerts held at Madison Square Gardenin New York in September 1979. They also staged a large rally in downtown Battery Park.
Natural Resources Defense Council
Natural Resources Defense Councilquestions the future potential of nuclear power and advocates more sustainable alternatives::New nuclear power plants are unlikely to provide a significant fraction of future U.S. needs for low-carbon energy. NRDC favors more practical, economical and environmentally sustainable approaches to reducing both U.S. and global carbon emissions, focusing on the widest possible implementation of end-use energy-efficiency improvements, and on policies to accelerate commercialization of clean, flexible, renewable energy technologies. [ [http://www.nrdc.org/nuclear/plants/contents.asp New Nuclear Power Plants Are Not a Solution for America's Energy Needs] ]
Nevada Desert Experience
Nevada Desert Experienceis a movement which aims to stop U.S. nuclear weapons testing. It is also the name of a particular organization which continues to create public events to question the morality and intelligence of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, with a main focus on the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site. [ [http://www.ktnv.com/Global/story.asp?S=8057676 19 anti-nuclear protesters cited at Nevada Test Site] ]
New England Coalition on Nuclear Pollution
The New England Coalition (NEC) is a membership-supported non-profit educational organization based in
Brattleboro, Vermont, which serves the New England region of the United States. The NEC doesn’t protest as a group, but instead takes legal action. The group "fights every step that the nuclear power industry attempts to take which might increase the risk of harm to the people, animals and land of Vermont and the greater New England region". [ [http://www.newenglandcoalition.org/about_NEC.html New England Coalition on Nuclear Pollution] ] The NEC was involved in protests at Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Plantbefore it was shut down in 1992 due to technical considerations. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE4D81F3FF930A15755C0A964958260 Nuclear Agency's Chief Praises Watchdog Groups] ] [ [http://www10.antenna.nl/wise/index.html?http://www10.antenna.nl/wise/369/3628.html Oldest operating US nuclear power plant shut down] ] The NEC is currently concerned about the possible extension of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant's operating license for an additional 20 years beyond the 2012 expiration. [ [http://www.boston.com/news/local/vermont/articles/2007/12/30/vermont_yankees_woes_top_list_of_years_big_stories/ Vermont Yankee's woes top list of year's big stories] ]
New Jersey Public Interest Research Group
The New Jersey Public Interest Research Group is working with local, state and national organizations, including the Rutgers Environmental Law Clinic, to intervene in
Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station’s license extension proceedings. [ [http://www.njpirg.org/issues/close-oyster-creek Close Oyster Creek] ]
No Nukes group
Bonnie Raitt, Graham Nashand Jackson Browneare part of the No Nukes groupwhich is against the expansion of nuclear powerin the USA. In 2007 they recorded a music videoof a new version of the Buffalo Springfieldsong "For What It's Worth". [ [http://www.nukefree.org/node/96 “For What It’s Worth,” No Nukes Reunite After Thirty Years] ] [ [http://www.nirs.org/home.htm Musicians Act to Stop New Atomic Reactors] ]
Nuclear Control Institute
Nuclear Control Institute, founded in 1981, is an independent research and advocacy center for preventing nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism. Non-profit and non-partisan, the organization is supported by philanthropic foundations and individuals. [ [http://www.nci.org/ About us] ]
Nuclear Free Great Lakes Campaign
The Nuclear Free Great Lakes Campaign consists of eight safe-energy organizations from the United States and Canada dedicated to the cessation of
radioactive contaminationof the Great LakesBasin, and the removal of nuclear power from the area. [ [http://www.neis.org/literature/Reports&Testimonies/IJC%20Testimony%209-24-99.htm Comments of the Nuclear Free Great Lakes Campaign] ]
Nuclear Free Vermont
Nuclear Free Vermont (NFV) is a grassroots organization of dedicated people from all walks of life. NFV's position is that Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant should not operate beyond 2012, and that the State of Vermont should not only be addressing the energy replacement, but also should have begun the planning for the loss of jobs that could arise from Vermont Yankee's closure. [ [http://www.nuclearfreevermont.org/about.php Nuclear Free Vermont] ]
Nuclear Information and Resource Service
Nuclear Information and Resource Serviceis a non-profit group founded in 1978 to be the information and networking center for citizens and organizations concerned about nuclear power, radioactive waste, radiationand sustainable energyissues. The organization advocates the implementation of safe, sustainable solutions such as efficient energy useand renewable energy. [http://www.nirs.org/about/nirs.htm About NIRS] ]
Nuclear Watch of New Mexico
The stated aim of Nuclear Watch of New Mexico is to "provide timely and accurate information to the public on nuclear issues in New Mexico and the Southwest". Nuclear Watch of New Mexico seeks to promote both greater safety and environmental protection at regional nuclear facilities and federal policy changes that genuinely encourage international efforts to curb the proliferation of nuclear weapons. [ [http://www.nukewatch.org/info/index.html General Information] ]
Nuclear Watch South
Nuclear Watch South and environmental activists are in conflict with large U.S. energy corporations and the federal government over the safety of nuclear power, as more than a dozen corporations plan to open new nuclear power plants in the U.S. South. [ [http://www.commondreams.org/archive/2008/01/15/6386/ Protests Greet Nuclear Power Resurgence in US South] ] [ [http://www.nonukesyall.org/ Nuclear Watch South] ]
Nukewatch, based in Wisconsin, is an independent action group working for peace and justice, with a primary focus on the nuclear industry. The organization's various projects bring critical attention to issues associated with nuclear weapons, nuclear power and radioactive wastes. The Nukewatch approach is one of non-violence in the spirit of the civil rights movement. [ [http://www.nukewatch.com/about/index.html Nukewatch] ]
Pilgrim Watch is a grassroots organization that aims to serve the public interest in issues regarding the
Pilgrim Nuclear Generating Stationin Plymouth, MA. Pilgrim Nuclear Station's license to operate is due to expire in 2012. Over 100,000 people live within the plant's ten-mile Emergency Planning Zone radius. [ [http://www.pilgrimwatch.org/overview.html Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station] ]
Public Citizen Energy Program
Public CitizenEnergy Program aims to protect citizens and the environment from "the dangers posed by nuclear power and seeks policies that will lead to safe, affordable and environmentally sustainable energy". [ [http://www.citizen.org/cmep/about/ About the Energy Program] ] In 2006, Public Citizen released an information brochure entitled "The Fatal Flaws of Nuclear Power". [ [http://www.citizen.org/documents/FatalFlawsSummary.pdf The Fatal Flaws of Nuclear Power] ]
The Redwood Alliance does not support construction of new nuclear reactors as a means of addressing global warming. It believes that available renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies are faster, cheaper, safer, and cleaner strategies for reducing greenhouse emissions than nuclear power. [ [http://www.redwoodalliance.org/ Redwood Alliance] ]
January 3rd, 2008, Riverkeeper joined some other nuclear watchdog groups in petitioning the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to suspend current license renewal proceedings for the Indian Point, Oyster Creek, Pilgrim and Vermont Yankee nuclear power plants. Riverkeeper has suggested that the NRC is "rubberstamping applications", and the group has called for "an objective and independent investigation" into the current license renewal process. [ [http://www.poughkeepsiejournal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080103/NEWS01/80103011 Environmental group protests nuclear plant license renewal] ]
afe Energy Vermont
Safe Energy Vermont contends that, as one of the oldest nuclear power plants in the country, Vermont Yankee's continued operation poses a threat to the people of Vermont. Intended to operate until 2012, the group suggests that the nuclear facility is running at 20% above its designed capacity and is suffering from aging infrastructure. [ [http://www.safepowervt.org/ Safe Energy Vermont] ]
eacoast Anti-Pollution League
The Seacoast Anti-Pollution League formed forty years ago to fight New Hampshire's Seabrook nuclear plant and plans to continue fighting any "nuclear renaissance," believing the energy future belongs instead to wind and solar power, energy-efficient houses and affordable electric cars. [ [http://www.boston.com/news/local/new_hampshire/articles/2008/05/31/nh_anti_nuclear_group_vows_to_continue_its_fight?mode=PF NH anti-nuclear group vows to continue its fight] ]
Shad Alliancewas an active and influential anti-nucleargroup which used non-violent, direct action methods in the late 1970s and 1980s. The Shad Alliance linked anti-nuclear activists on Long Island, in New York City, and throughout the Hudson River area, and targeted the Indian Point and Shoreham nuclear power plants.Brown, Jerry and Brutoco, Rinaldo (1997). "Profiles in power: The antinuclear movement and the dawn of the solar age", Prentice Hall, pp. 63-64.]
On June 3, 1979, a large demonstration at Shoreham was organized by the Shad Alliance. About 18,000 people marched on Shoreham nuclear plant and 500 climbed the perimeter fence to occupy the plant in an act of civil disobedience. Police made 571 arrests. [http://www.newsday.com/search/ny-history-hs9shore,0,4295595.story Lights Out at Shoreham: Anti-nuclear activism spurs the closing of a new $6 billion plant] ]
The Shundahai Network was formed at the Nevada nuclear test site in 1994, by a group of nuclear disarmament activists, at the request of
Corbin Harney, a Western Shoshonespiritual leader. The Shundahai Network seeks to abolish all nuclear weapons and put an end to nuclear testing. They advocate phasing out nuclear energy and ending the transportation and dumping of nuclear waste. The Network works to promote the principles of environmental justice and strive to insure that indigenous voices are heard in the movement to influence U.S. nuclear and environmental policies. [ [http://www.shundahai.org/Shundahai_Network_Information.htm Shundahai Network] ]
Sierra Clubopposes building new nuclear reactors, both fission and fusion, until specific inherent safety risks are mitigated by government policies, and regulatory agencies are in place to enforce those policies. [ [http://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/200701/nukes.asp Why Not Nukes? Reconsidering the nuclear option] ]
The Sierra Club is particularly concerned about the transportation of nuclear waste to the proposed
Yucca Mountainwaste repository in Nevada. According to the Sierra Club, planned nuclear waste transportation would involve truck or rail shipments through 43 states (many of which have chosen not to have nuclear facilities), within half a mile of millions of homes, and through over 100 of America's largest cities. Barge shipments would move through 17 port cities on the Atlantic seaboard and through the drinking water of the Great Lakes via Lake Michigan. The Department of Energy (DOE) is predicting that 108,500 waste shipments will be required over 38 years.
nake River Alliance
The Snake River Alliance is an Idaho-based grassroots group "working through research, education, and community advocacy for peace and justice, the end to nuclear weapons, responsible solutions to nuclear waste and contamination, and sustainable alternatives to nuclear power". Since 1979 the Alliance has endeavored to protect Idaho's people, environment, and economy from nuclear weapons and waste at the
Idaho National Laboratory. The Alliance has also advocated clean and renewable energy, promoting the development of a sustainable energy plan for Idaho. [ [http://www.snakeriveralliance.org/AboutUs/Mission/tabid/160/Default.aspx What we're all about] ]
outheast Convergence for Climate Action
Activists from the Southeast Convergence for Climate Action occupied the welcome center for Dominion’s
North Anna Nuclear Power Planton August 7, 2008. The action was taken to protest Dominion’s plans to build two new nuclear reactors and "to call out nuclear power for the false solution that it is to the climate crisis". [ [http://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/2008/08/405999.html Southeast Climate Convergence occupies nuclear facility] ]
outhern Alliance for Clean Energy
Southern Alliance for Clean Energy (SACE) is a non-profit, non-partisan organization that promotes responsible energy choices that solve global warming problems and promote clean, safe and healthy communities throughout the Southeast of the United States. [ [http://www.cleanenergy.org/about/index.cfm Southern Alliance for Clean Energy] ] SACE opposes several nuclear and plutonium expansion proposals which "threaten the development of a safe, healthy future in the Southeast". SACE states that these proposals, coupled with an effort by some lawmakers to revitalize nuclear power through controversial energy legislation, will further degrade the Southeast region. [ [http://www.cleanenergy.org/programs/programs.cfm?ID=28&parent=4&ps=Yes Nuclear Expansion] ]
Three Mile Island Alert
Three Mile Island Alert is a non-profit citizens' organization which is critical of the
Three Mile Islandnuclear plant and is dedicated to the promotion of safe-energy alternatives to nuclear power. Formed in 1977 (two years before the Three Mile Island accident) TMIA is the largest and oldest nuclear watchdog group in central Pennsylvania. The group has provided testimony to the US Senate, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission and has received certificates of commendation from several governmental bodies. [ [http://www.tmia.com/about/index.html Three Mile Island Alert] ]
Several other groups formed after the TMI accident, including PANE, Newberry Township Steering Committee, and the Susquehanna Valley Alliance. [ [http://books.google.com.au/books?id=gckmUJNYqA8C&pg=RA1-PA56&lpg=RA1-PA56&dq=%22tmi%22+anti-nuclear+protests+demonstrations&source=web&ots=mdf2vE-ppL&sig=GVMqEuKn--Uc3Nxwp7JjYAnwzkc&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result#PRA1-PA56,M1 TMI 25 Years Later] p. 56.]
Tri-Valley Communities Against a Radioactive Environment (CAREs) was founded in 1983 in Livermore, California by concerned neighbors living around the
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, one of two locations where US nuclear weapons are designed. Tri-Valley CAREs monitors nuclear weapons and environmental clean-up activities throughout the US nuclear weapons complex, with a special focus on Livermore Lab and the surrounding communities. Tri-Valley CAREs' overarching mission is to promote peace, justice and a healthy environment. [ [http://www.trivalleycares.org/aboutus.asp Welcome to Tri-Valley CAREs] ]
For many years, Tri-Valley CAREs has helped to organize the annual
Good Fridayprotest outside Lawrence Livermore Laboratory where, in 2008, more than 80 people were arrested. [ [http://www.mercurynews.com/breakingnews/ci_8654786 More than 80 people arrested at annual protest at Livermore lab] ]
The UNPLUG Salem Campaign began in 1995 and focuses on closing the
Salem Nuclear Power Plantas soon as possible, and also tries to stop the killing of fish and marine life by the plants. In addition, the Campaign promotes alternatives to electricity produced by nuclear power and coal.
Vermont Public Interest Research Group
In July 2008, Vermont Public Interest Research Group called for the immediate shutdown of
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plantafter various problems at the plant in recent years. [ [http://www.timesargus.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080719/NEWS01/807190358/1002/NEWS01&template=printart Nuke watchdog groups say it's time to close Vermont Yankee] ]
Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control
The Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control is a non-profit, non-partisan organization that operates in Washington, D.C. under the auspices of the
University of Wisconsin. It conducts research and advocacy "to stem the spread of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction". The Wisconsin Project was established in 1986 by Professor Gary Milhollin. [ [http://www.wisconsinproject.org/aboutus.html Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control] ]
The Platform adopted by the delegates of the membership of the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA) at their annual Green Congress, meeting in Chicago, May 26-28, 2000, reflecting the majority views of the G/GPUSA membership, includes the creation of self-reproducing, renewable energy systems and use of federal investments, purchasing, mandates, and incentives to shut down nuclear power plants, and phase out fossil fuels. [ [http://www.greenparty.org/Platform.php The Greens/Green Party USA ] ]
Notable individuals who have been associated with, or supportive of, the anti-nuclear movement in the US include: [ [http://www.eco.utexas.edu/~hmcleave/357Lgarzachap3.pdf#search=%22anti%20nuclear%20movement%22 The Rise of the Anti-nuclear Power Movement] ] [ [http://www.businessandmedia.org/printer/2007/20071108140458.aspx Ancient Rockers Try to Recharge Anti-Nuclear Movement] ] [ [http://www.beyondnuclear.org/supporters.html Beyond Nuclear: A Welcome from Ed Asner, Honorary Chairman] ]
2007 United States Air Force nuclear weapons incident
Environmental movement in the United States
Great Peace March for Global Nuclear Disarmament
Licensed to Kill? The Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Shoreham Power Plant
List of anti-nuclear groups
List of renewable energy organizations
No Nukes (album)
No Nukes (film)
Nuclear energy policy
Nuclear power in the United States
Nuclear power whistleblowers
Nuclear safety in the U.S.
Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station
Renewable energy commercialization in the United States
The Seneca Women's Encampment for a Future of Peace and Justice
Three Mile Island (book)
Trojan Nuclear Power Plant
Uranium mining in the United States
*Cragin, Susan (2007). "
Nuclear Nebraska: The Remarkable Story of the Little County That Couldn’t Be Bought".
*Dickerson, Carrie B. and Patricia Lemon (1995). "Black Fox: Aunt Carrie's War Against the Black Fox Nuclear Power Plant", ISBN 1571780092
*Giugni, Marco (2004). "Social Protest and Policy Change".
*Jasper, James M. (1997). "The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements", University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226394816
*McCafferty, David P. (1991). "The Politics of nuclear power: A history of the Shoreham power plant".
*Miller, Byron A. (2000). "Geography and social movements: Comparing anti-nuclear activism in the Boston area".
*Natti, Susanna and Acker, Bonnie (1979). "No nukes: Everyone's guide to nuclear power".
*Ondaatje, Elizabeth H. (c1988). "Trends in antinuclear protests in the United States, 1984-1987".
*Peterson, Christian (2003). "Ronald Reagan and Antinuclear Movements in the United States and Western Europe, 1981-1987".
*Polletta, Francesca (2002). "Freedom Is an Endless Meeting: Democracy in American Social Movements", University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226674495
*Smith, Jennifer (Editor), (2002). "The Antinuclear Movement".
*Wellock, Thomas R. (1998). "Critical Masses: Opposition to Nuclear Power in California, 1958-1978", The University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0299158500
*Wills, John (2006). "Conservation Fallout: Nuclear Protest at Diablo Canyon".
* [http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/nuclear_safety/reactor-map/nuclear-reactor-list.html List of nuclear reactors in the USA]
* [http://www.homestead.com/clonemaster/files/Cancel.htm Cancelled Nuclear Units Ordered in the United States]
* [http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_reactors/shutdown.html Nuclear Reactor Shutdown List]
* [http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=16926&Cr=&Cr1=# Public support for new nuclear power plants low, according to UN-backed poll]
* [http://www.dlbfilms.com/questionofpower.html A Question of Power documentary film]
* [http://www.nirs.org/radwaste/yucca/yuccaopponentslist.htm Over 50 National and 700 State/local Environmental & Public Interest Organizations Opposed to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Dump]
* [http://www.recordonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071221/NEWS/712210348 The anti-nuke activist with a very loud voice]
* [http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/onlinessays/JC24-25folder/anti-nukeDocs.html Filming the anti-nuke movement]
* [http://www.thedailygreen.com/environmental-news/latest/anti-nuclear-john-edwards-47123001 For Anti-Nuke Crowd, One Choice]
* [http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/7/2008/1627 Anti-nuclear renaissance: a powerful but partial and tentative victory over atomic energy]
* [http://www.boston.com/news/local/new_hampshire/articles/2006/10/28/vermont_yankee_nuke_plants_critics_still_at_it_34_years_later/ Vermont Yankee nuke plant's critics still at it, 34 years later]
* [http://www.moviehappenings.info/video_YfTi3kHDtW0.html Entergy Vermont Yankee Anti-Nuclear Protest in VT (YouTube)]
* [http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2008/03/26/anti-nuke_groups_government_plan_costly/3291/ Anti-nuke groups: Government plan costly]
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