- Starling resistor
The Starling resistor was invented by English
physiologist Ernest Starlingand used in an isolated-heart preparation during work which would later lead to the " Frank-Starling law of the heart".
The device consisted of an elastic fluid-filled collapsible-tube mounted inside a chamber filled with air. The static pressure inside the chamber was used to control the degree of collapse of the tube, so providing a variable resistor. This resistance was used to simulate TPR, or total peripheral (vascular) resistance.
Starling resistors have been used both as an instrument in the study of interesting physiological phenomena (e.g. pharyngeal collapse during obstructed breathing or OSA) and as a rich source of physical phenomena in their own right. Two non-linear behaviours are characteristic: 1) the “waterfall effect” wherein, subsequent to collapse, the flow through the tube becomes independent of the downstream pressure and 2) self excited oscillations. Expiratory flow-limitation in the disease
COPDis an example of the former behaviour and snoringan example of the later.
*cite journal | author= Knowlton, F. P., Starling, E. H. | year=1912 | title= The influence of variations in temperature and blood pressure on the performance of the isolated mammalian heart | journal=Journal of Physiology | volume=44(3) | pages=206–219
*cite book | author= Levick, J.R. | title= An Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology | year = 2003 | | publisher=Hodder Arnold | id= ISBN-10: 0340809213
*cite journal | author= Conrad, W. A. | year=1969 | title= Pressure-flow relationships in collapsible tubes | journal= IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. | volume= Oct;16(4) | pages=284–295
*cite journal | author= Bertram C.D. | year=1995 | title= The dynamics of collapsible tubes | journal= Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. | volume= 49 | pages=253–64
*cite journal | author= Armitstead J.P., Bertram C.D., Jensen O.E. | year=1996 | title= A study of the bifurcation behaviour of a model of flow through a collapsible tube | journal= Bull. Math. Biol. | volume= Jul;58(4) | pages=611–41 | doi= 10.1007/BF02459476
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