List of Burmese monarchs


List of Burmese monarchs
History of Burma
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This is a list of the monarchs of Burma (Myanmar), covering the monarchs of all the major kingdoms that existed in the present day Burma (Myanmar). Although Burmese tradition maintains that various monarchies of Burma (Mon, Burman, Arakanese), began in 9th century BCE, historically verified data date back only to 1044 CE at the ascension of Anawrahta of Pagan. The farther away the data are from 1044, the less verifiable they are. For example, the founding of the city of Pagan (Bagan) in 9th century is verifiable–although the accuracy of the actual date, given in the Chronicles as 849, remains in question–but the founding of early Pagan dynasty, given as 2nd century, is not.[1]

The names of monarchs and their English spellings as well as the dates here generally follow those by G.E. Harvey and Htin Aung. In some cases, the list uses more accurate dates given by later historians, taking into account that the traditional Burmese calendar straddles the Western calendar. For example, the death years of Kyansittha, Wareru and Nyaungyan are respectively given as 1113, 1307 and 1606 (not 1112, 1306 and 1605 per Harvey and Htin Aung.) Likewise Razadarit's death year is given as 1422–in the middle of 1421 given by Mon sources and 1423 given by Burmese sources.

Contents

Early kingdoms

The monarchs of this era are mostly legendary, and none is attested.[1]

Arakan (to 1430)

  • See List of Arakanese monarchs – Arakanese Chronicles report dates back to 2666 BCE. Dates prior to Pagan's conquest of Arakan are completely unattested.

Early Pagan (107–849)

Burmese Chronicles report the founding of Tagaung in 850 BCE by King Abhiraza of the Sakya clan (of the Buddha), and that the Buddha himself visited Burma in his lifetime. The dates here are unattested.

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Thamudarit 107–152
Yathekyaung 152–167
Pyusawhti 167–242 Son-in-law of Thamudarit
Htiminyin 242–299 Son
Yinminpaik 299–324 Son
Paikthili 324–344 Son
Thinlikyaung I 344–387 Son
Kyaungdurit 387–412 Son
Thihtan 412–439 Son
Several usurpers 439–494
Tharamunhpya 494–516 Grandson of Thihtan
Thaiktaing 516–523 Son
Thinlikyaung II 523–532 Son
Thinlipaik 532–547 Brother
Hkanlaung 547–557 Brother
Hkanlat 557–569 Brother
Htuntaik 569–582 Son
Htunpyit 582–598 Son
Htunchit 598–613 Son
Popa Sawrahan 613–640 Usurper
Shwe Onthi 640–652 Son-in-law
Peitthon 652–660 Brother
Peittaung 660–710 Son
Ngahkwe 710–716 Brother
Myinkywe 716–726 Usurper
Theinkha 726–734 Elected by court; of royal blood
Theinsun 734–744 Son
Shwelaung 744–753 Son
Htunhtwin 753–762 Son
Shwemauk 762–785 Son
Munlat 785–802 Brother
Sawhkinhnit 802–829 Son
Hkelu 829–846 Son

Early Hanthawaddy (825–1057)

The list here is per Harvey who reported it from Shwemawdaw Thamaing; the dates are unattested.[2] Other Mon Chronicles give a similar list of rulers from 573 to 781 with no records thereafter, leaving a gap of 276 years to Pagan's conquest of Pegu in 1057.[3] Harvey's list better synchronizes with historically confirmed Pagan dates.

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Thamala 825–837 Founds Pegu (Bago) in 825
Wimala 837-854 Brother
Atha 854–861 Nephew
Areindama 861–885 Son
A monk 885–902
Geinda 902–917
Migadeippa I 917–932
Geissadiya 932–942
Karawika 942–954
Pyinzala 954–967 Son
Attatha 967–982 Brother
Anuyama 982–994 Nephew
Migadeippa II 994–1004
Ekkathamanda 1004–1016
Uppala 1016–1028
Pontarika 1028–1043 Founds Dagon
Tissa 1043–1057

Thaton Kingdom (to 1057)

Mon Chronicles report the Thaton kingdom was founded in the lifetime of the Buddha, and that its first king Thiha Raza died in the same year as the Buddha c. 543 BCE.[4] Its last king Manuha, captured by Anawrahta, supposedly was the 59th king of Thaton.

Pagan (849–1287)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Pyinbya 846–878;[5] (874–906)[6] Founded Pagan in 3rd year of reign
Tannet 878–906 (906–934) Son
Sale Ngahkwe 906–915 (934–943) Usurper
Theinhko 915–931 (943–959) Son
Nyaung-u Sawrahan 931–964 (959–992) Usurper
Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu 964–986 (992–1014) Son of Tannet
Kyiso 986–992 (1014–1020) Son of Nyaung-u Sawrahan
Sokkate 992–1044 (1020–1044) Brother
Anawrahta 1044–1077 Son of Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu Founder of Pagan Empire
Sawlu 1077–1084 Son
Kyanzittha 1084–1113 Half-brother Elected
Alaungsithu 1113–1167 Grandson Also grandson of Sawlu
Narathu 1167–1170 Son
Naratheinkha 1170–1173 Son
Narapatisithu 1173–1210 Brother
Htilominlo 1210–1234 Son
Kyaswa 1234–1250 Son
Uzana 1250–1254 Son
Narathihapate 1254–1287 Son Last sovereign king of Pagan
Kyawswa 1287–1298 Son of Narathihapate Mongol vassal
Sawhnit 1298–1325 Son Viceroy of Pagan to Myinsaing
Uzana II 1325–1369 Son Viceroy of Pagan

Small kingdoms

Myinsaing (1298–1313)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Athinhkaya
Yazathingyan
Thihathu
1298–1310
1298–1305
1298–1313
Brothers and co-regents

Pinya (1313–1364)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Thihathu 1313–1324 Brother of Athinhkaya and Yazathingyan
Uzana I 1324–1343 Adopted son Son of Kyawswa of Pagan
Kyawswa I (Ngarsishin) 1343–1350 Half-brother Son of Thihathu, brother of Sawyun of Sagaing
Kyawswa II 1350–1359 Son
Narathu of Pinya 1359–1364 Brother
Uzana II 1364 Brother

Sagaing (1315–1364)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Sawyun 1315–1323 Son of Thihathu Brother of Kyawswa I of Pinya
Tarabya I 1323–1336 Half-brother from mother's side
Shwetaungtet 1336–1340 Son
Kyaswa of Sagaing 1340–1350 Uncle Son of Sawyun
Nawrahta Minye 1350 Brother
Tarabya II 1350–1353 Brother
Minbyauk Thihapate 1353–1364 Brother-in-law Assassinated by stepson Thadominbya

Ava (1364–1555)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Thadominbya 1364–1368 Grandson of Sawyun
Swasawke 1368–1400 Elected Grandson of Kyawswa of Pagan and grandnephew of Thihathu
Tarabya 1400–1401 Son
Minkhaung I 1401–1422 Half-brother
Thihathu 1422–1426 Son
Minhlange 1426 Son Assassinated
Kale Kyetaungnyo 1426–1427 Uncle
Mohnyin Thado 1427–1440 Descended from Kyawswa I of Pinya
Minyekyawswa 1440–1443 Son
Narapati 1443–1468 Brother
Thihathura 1469–1481 Son
Minkhaung II 1481–1502 Son
Thihathura II 1487–1502 Son Joint-king during Minkhaung II's reign
Shwenankyawshin 1502–1527 Son of Minkhaung II
Thohanbwa 1527–1543 Son of Sawlon of Mohnyin
Hkonmaing 1543–1546 Saopha of Thibaw
Mobye Narapati 1546–1552 Son Saopha of Mobye (Mong Pai)
Sithu Kyawhtin 1552–1555 Saopha of Salin

Prome (1482–1542)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Thado Minsaw 1482–1527 Son of Narapati of Ava
Bayin Htwe 1527–1533 Son
Narapati 1533–1539 Son
Minkhaung 1539–1542 Brother

Hanthawaddy (1287–1539)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Wareru 1287–1307
Hkun Law 1307–1311 Brother
Saw O 1311–1324 Nephew
Saw Zein 1324–1331 Brother
Zein Pun 1331 Usurper
Saw E 1331 Nephew of Saw Zein
Binnya E Law 1331–1348 Uncle Son of Hkun Law
Binnya U 1348–1384 Nephew Son of Saw Zein
Razadarit 1384–1422 Son
Binnya Dhammaraza 1422–1426 Son
Binnya Ran I 1426–1446 Brother
Binnya Waru 1446–1450 Nephew
Binnya Kyan 1450–1453 Cousin Son of Binnya Dhamaraza
Leik Munhtaw 1453 Cousin Son of Binnya Ran
Shin Sawbu 1453–1472 Aunt Daughter of Razadarit
Dhammazedi 1472–1492 Son in law
Binnya Ran II 1492–1526 Son
Takayutpi 1526–1539 Son
Smim Sawhtut 1550 Claimant to throne
Smim Htaw 1550–1552 Brother of Takayutpi Claimant to throne

Mrauk-U (1430–1784)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Min Saw Mon 1430–1434 Son of Razathu Moved capital to Mrauk-U in 1433
Min Khari 1434–1459 Brother
Ba Saw Phyu 1459–1482 Son
Dawlya 1482–1492 Son
Ba Saw Nyo 1492–1494 Uncle, son of Min Khari
Ran Aung 1494 Nephew, son of Dawlya
Salin Gathu 1494–1501 Maternal uncle
Min Raza 1501–1523 Son
Gazapati 1523–1525 Son
Min Saw O 1525 Granduncle, brother of Salin Gathu
Thatasa 1525–1531 Son of Dawlya
Min Bin 1531–1553 Son of Min Raza
Dikha 1553–1555 Son
Saw Hla 1555–1564 Son
Min Setya 1564–1571 Brother
Min Palaung 1571–1593 Son of Min Bin
Min Razagyi 1593–1612 Son
Min Khamaung 1612–1622 Son
Thiri Thudhamma 1622–1638 Son
Min Sani 1638 Son reigned 28 days
Narapati 1638–1645 Great-grandson of Thasata
Thado 1645–1652 Nephew
Sanda Thudhamma 1652–1684 Son
Thiri Thuriya 1684–1685 Son
Wara Dhammaraza 1685–1692 Brother
Muni Thuddhammaraza 1692–1694 Brother
Sanda Thuriya I 1694–1696 Brother
Nawrahta Zaw 1696 Son reigned 15 days
Mayokpiya 1696–1697 Usurper
Kalamandat 1697–1698 Usurper
Naradipati I 1698–1700 Son of Sanda Thuriya
Sanda Wimala I 1700–1706 Grandson of Thado
Sanda Thuriya II 1706–1710 Grandson of Sanda Thudhamma
Sanda Wizaya 1710–1731 Usurper
Sanda Thuriya III 1731–1734 Son-in-law
Naradipati II 1734–1735 Son
Narapawara 1735–1737 Usurper
Sanda Wizaya 1737 Cousin reigned 8 months
Madarit 1737–1742 Brother
Nara Apaya 1742–1761 Uncle
Thirithu 1761 Son reigned 3 months
Sanda Parama 1761–1764 Brother
Apaya 1764–1773 Brother-in-law
Sanda Thumana 1773–1777 Brother-in-law
Sanda Wimala II 1777 Usurper Reigned 40 days
Sanda Thaditha 1777–1782 Lord of Ramree
Thamada 1782–1784

Toungoo (1510–1752)

Capitals: Toungoo (1510–1539), Pegu (1539–1635), Ava (1635–1752)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Mingyinyo 1510–1530 Viceroy of Toungoo, 1486–1510
Tabinshwehti 1530–1550 Son
Bayinnaung 1551–1581 Brother-in-law
Nanda 1581–1599 Son Assassinated; nephew of Tabinshwehti
Nyaungyan 1599–1606 Half-brother
Anaukpetlun 1606–1628 Son
Minyedeippa 1628–1629 Son
Thalun 1629–1648 Uncle
Pindale 1648–1661 Son
Pye 1661–1672 Brother
Narawara 1672–1673 Son
Minyekyawdin 1673–1698 Nephew
Sanay 1698–1714 Son
Taninganway 1714–1733 Son
Mahadhammaraza Dipadi 1733–1752 Son

Restored Hanthawaddy (1740–1757)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Smim Htaw Buddhaketi 1740–1747 Abdicated
Binnya Dala 1747–1757

Konbaung (1752–1885)

Capitals: Shwebo (1752–1760); Sagaing (1760–1764); Ava (1764–1783, 1823–1837), Amarapura (1783–1823, 1837–1857), Mandalay (1857–1885)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Alaungpaya 1752–1760
Naungdawgyi 1760–1763 Son
Hsinbyushin 1763–1776 Brother Alaungpaya's second son
Singu 1776–1782 Son Assassinated
Phaungka 1782 Cousin Son of Naungdawgyi
Bodawpaya 1782–1819 Uncle Alaungpaya's fourth son
Bagyidaw 1819–1837 Grandson Deposed
Tharrawaddy 1837–1846 Brother
Pagan 1846–1853 Son Deposed
Mindon 1853–1878 Brother
Thibaw 1878–1885 Son

See also

References

  1. ^ a b GE Harvey (1925). "Genealogical Tables". History of Burma. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.. p. 364. 
  2. ^ Harvey, History of Burma, p. 368
  3. ^ Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. Phayre (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta. p. 289. 
  4. ^ Phyare, p. 288
  5. ^ As given in various chronicles, which fix Anawrahta's year of ascension as 1010 or 1017 both of which have been proven incorrect.
  6. ^ Calculated by Anawrahta's verified year of ascension, 1044
  • Htin Aung, A History of Burma, Cambridge University Press, New York and London, 1967
  • Harvey, G.E., History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824, Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., London, 1925
  • Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P., History of Burma, London, 2nd Edition, 1967

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