- Langerhans cell
::"Not to be confused with the
beta cells making up the islets of Langerhans."
Langerhans' cells are
dendritic cellsabundant in epidermis, containing large granules called Birbeck granules. They are normally present in lymph nodes, and can be found in other organs in the condition Histiocytosis.Specifically, the Langerhans cells are located primarily in the stratum spinosumportion of the epidermis.
Named after German
anatomistand physician Paul Langerhans(1847-1888) who described it in skin when he was a medical student.
infectionof an area of skin, the local Langerhans' cells will take up and process microbial antigens to become fully-functional antigen-presenting cells.
Generally, dendritic cells in tissue are active in the capture, uptake and processing of antigens. Once dendritic cells arrive in secondary lymphoid tissue however, they lose these properties while gaining the capacity to interact with
Langerhans' cells are derived from the
cellular differentiationof monocytes with the marker "Gr-1" (also known as "Ly-6c/G"). The differentiation requires stimulation by colony stimulating factor-1. [cite journal | author = Ginhoux F, Tacke F, Angeli V, Bogunovic M, Loubeau M, Dai X, Stanley E, Randolph G, Merad M | title = Langerhans cells arise from monocytes in vivo | journal = Nat Immunol | volume = 7 | issue = 3 | pages = 265–73 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16444257 | doi = 10.1038/ni1307] They are similar in morphology and function to macrophages. Semester 4 medical lectures at Uppsala University 2008 by Leif Jansson]
rare disease Langerhans' cell histiocytosis(LCH), an excess of these cells is produced, which can cause damage to skin, boneand other organs.
Langerhans' cells capture HIV-1 virions by way of
Fc receptorbinding to antibody-coated virus. Langerhans' cells act as reservoirs for the HIV-1 virus, serving as a site of replication when T-cells become depleted (Robbins Pathology).
Langerhans' cells have been observed in
foreskin, vaginal, and oral mucosaof humans; the lower concentrations in oral mucosa suggest that it is not a likely source of HIVinfection relative to foreskin and vaginal mucosa. [cite journal | author = Hussain, LA, Lehner T | title = Comparative Investigation of Langerhans' cells and Potential Receptors for HIV in Oral, Genitourinary and Rectal Epithelia | journal = Immunology | volume = 85 | pages = 475–484 | year = 1995 |pmid=7558138]
March 4 2007the online Nature Medicinemagazine published the letter " Langerinis a natural barrier to HIV-1 transmission by Langerhans cells." [cite journal |author=de Witte L, Nabatov A, Pion M, Fluitsma D, de Jong M, de Gruijl T, Piguet V, van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek T |title=Langerin is a natural barrier to HIV-1 transmission by Langerhans cells |journal=Nat Med |volume=13 |issue=3 |pages=367–71 |year=2007 |pmid=17334373 |doi=10.1038/nm1541] Teunis Geijtenbeek, one of the authors of the study, said that "Langerin is able to scavenge viruses from the surrounding environment, thereby preventing infection" and "since generally all tissues on the outside of our bodies have Langerhans cells, we think that the human body is equipped with an antiviral defense mechanism, destroying incoming viruses." [cite news |first=E.J. |last=Mundell |title=Scientists Discover 'Natural Barrier' to HIV |url=http://sexualhealth.e-healthsource.com/index.php?p=news1&id=602421 |work= |publisher=HealthDay News via sexualhealth.e-healthsource.com |date=March 5, 2007 |accessdate=2008-07-13 ]
Langhans giant cell
* [http://www.trinity.edu/rblyston/MicroA/Lectures/L34-html/img018.jpgIllustration at trinity.edu]
* [http://www.djo.harvard.edu/site.php?url=/physicians/gr/356&page=GR_AG Birbeck granules at djo.harvard.edu]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Langerhans cell — Cell found in the skin that internalizes antigen and moves in the lymph to lymph nodes where it differentiates into a dendritic cell … Dictionary of microbiology
Langerhans cell — Lang·er·hans cell läŋ ər .hän(t)s n a dendritic cell of the interstitial spaces of the mammalian epidermis that functions as an antigen presenting cell which binds antigen entering through the skin and transports it to the lymph nodes P.… … Medical dictionary
Langerhans cell — noun Etymology: Paul Langerhans died 1888 German physician Date: 1890 a cell that is found in the epidermis and functions as an antigen presenting cell which binds antigen entering through the skin … New Collegiate Dictionary
langerhans cell — ˈläŋə(r)ˌhän(t)s noun Usage: usually capitalized L Etymology: after Paul Langerhans died 1888 German physician : a cell having slender cytoplasmic projections that is found in the epidermis and functions as an antigen presenting cell which binds… … Useful english dictionary
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis — LCH. A group of rare disorders in which too many Langerhans cells (a type of white blood cell) grow in certain tissues and organs including the bones, skin, and lungs, and damage them. LCH may also affect the pituitary gland (which makes hormones … English dictionary of cancer terms
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