Langerhans cell


Langerhans cell

::"Not to be confused with the beta cells making up the islets of Langerhans."

Langerhans' cells are dendritic cells abundant in epidermis, containing large granules called Birbeck granules. They are normally present in lymph nodes, and can be found in other organs in the condition Histiocytosis.Specifically, the Langerhans cells are located primarily in the stratum spinosum portion of the epidermis.

Named after German anatomist and physician Paul Langerhans (1847-1888) who described it in skin when he was a medical student.

Function

On infection of an area of skin, the local Langerhans' cells will take up and process microbial antigens to become fully-functional antigen-presenting cells.

Generally, dendritic cells in tissue are active in the capture, uptake and processing of antigens. Once dendritic cells arrive in secondary lymphoid tissue however, they lose these properties while gaining the capacity to interact with naive T-cells.

Langerhans' cells are derived from the cellular differentiation of monocytes with the marker "Gr-1" (also known as "Ly-6c/G"). The differentiation requires stimulation by colony stimulating factor-1. [cite journal | author = Ginhoux F, Tacke F, Angeli V, Bogunovic M, Loubeau M, Dai X, Stanley E, Randolph G, Merad M | title = Langerhans cells arise from monocytes in vivo | journal = Nat Immunol | volume = 7 | issue = 3 | pages = 265–73 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16444257 | doi = 10.1038/ni1307] They are similar in morphology and function to macrophages. Semester 4 medical lectures at Uppsala University 2008 by Leif Jansson]

Clinical significance

LCH

In the rare disease Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH), an excess of these cells is produced, which can cause damage to skin, bone and other organs.

HIV

Langerhans' cells capture HIV-1 virions by way of Fc receptor binding to antibody-coated virus. Langerhans' cells act as reservoirs for the HIV-1 virus, serving as a site of replication when T-cells become depleted (Robbins Pathology).

Langerhans' cells have been observed in foreskin, vaginal, and oral mucosa of humans; the lower concentrations in oral mucosa suggest that it is not a likely source of HIV infection relative to foreskin and vaginal mucosa. [cite journal | author = Hussain, LA, Lehner T | title = Comparative Investigation of Langerhans' cells and Potential Receptors for HIV in Oral, Genitourinary and Rectal Epithelia | journal = Immunology | volume = 85 | pages = 475–484 | year = 1995 |pmid=7558138]

On March 4 2007 the online Nature Medicine magazine published the letter "Langerin is a natural barrier to HIV-1 transmission by Langerhans cells." [cite journal |author=de Witte L, Nabatov A, Pion M, Fluitsma D, de Jong M, de Gruijl T, Piguet V, van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek T |title=Langerin is a natural barrier to HIV-1 transmission by Langerhans cells |journal=Nat Med |volume=13 |issue=3 |pages=367–71 |year=2007 |pmid=17334373 |doi=10.1038/nm1541] Teunis Geijtenbeek, one of the authors of the study, said that "Langerin is able to scavenge viruses from the surrounding environment, thereby preventing infection" and "since generally all tissues on the outside of our bodies have Langerhans cells, we think that the human body is equipped with an antiviral defense mechanism, destroying incoming viruses." [cite news |first=E.J. |last=Mundell |title=Scientists Discover 'Natural Barrier' to HIV |url=http://sexualhealth.e-healthsource.com/index.php?p=news1&id=602421 |work= |publisher=HealthDay News via sexualhealth.e-healthsource.com |date=March 5, 2007 |accessdate=2008-07-13 ]

ee also

* histiocytosis
* Foreskin
* Paul Langerhans
* Langhans giant cell

References

External links

*
* [http://www.trinity.edu/rblyston/MicroA/Lectures/L34-html/img018.jpgIllustration at trinity.edu]
* [http://www.djo.harvard.edu/site.php?url=/physicians/gr/356&page=GR_AG Birbeck granules at djo.harvard.edu]
*


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Langerhans cell — Lang·er·hans cell läŋ ər .hän(t)s n a dendritic cell of the interstitial spaces of the mammalian epidermis that functions as an antigen presenting cell which binds antigen entering through the skin and transports it to the lymph nodes P.… …   Medical dictionary

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