- Psychodynamic psychotherapy
Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a form of
depth psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension. [ [http://www.guidetopsychology.com/txtypes.htm#Psychodynamic psychodynamic psychotherapy] - "guidetopsychology.com"] In this way, it is similar to psychoanalysis, however, psychodynamic therapy tends to be more brief and less intensive than psychoanalysis. It also relies on the interpersonal relationship between client and therapist more than other forms of depth psychology. In terms of approach, this form of therapy also tends to be more eclectic than others, taking techniques from a variety of sources, rather than relying on a single system of intervention. It is a focus that has been used in individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, and to understand and work with institutional and organizational contexts. Fact|date=June 2007
The principles of
psychodynamicswere first introduced in the 1874 publication "Lectures on Physiology" by German scientist Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke. Brücke, taking a cue from thermodynamics, suggested that all living organisms are energy systems, governed by the principle of energy conservation. During the same year, Brücke was supervisor to first-year medical student Sigmund Freudat the University of Vienna. Freud later adopted this new construct of “dynamic” physiology to aid in his own conceptualization of the human psyche. Later, both the concept and application of psychodynamics was further developed by the likes of Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Melanie Klein[ Horacio Etchegoyen: "The Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique", Karnac Books ed., New Ed, 2005, ISBN 185575455X] .
Most psychodynamic approaches centered around the concept that some maladaptive functioning is in play, and that this maladaption is, at least in part, unconscious. The presumed maladaption develops early in life and eventually causes
dissonancein day to day life. The psychodynamic therapist first intervenes to treat the discomfort associated with the poorly formed functionFact|date=June 2007, then helps the client acknowledge the existence of the maladaption, while working with the client to develop strategies for change.
Core Principles and Characteristics
Although psychodynamic psychotherapy can take many forms, commonalities include [cite book |last=Sundberg |first=Norman |title=Clinical Psychology: Evolving Theory, Practice, and Research |publisher=Prentice Hall |location=Englewood Cliffs |year=2001 |isbn=0130871192 ] :
* An emphasis on the centrality of intrapsychic and unconscious conflicts, and their relation to development.
* Seeing defenses as developing in internal psychic structures in order to avoid unpleasant consequences of conflict.
* A belief that psychopathology develops especially from early childhood experiences.
* A view that internal representations of experiences are organized around interpersonal relations.
* A conviction that life issues and dynamics will re-emerge in the context of the client-therapist relationship as
* Use of free association as a major method for exploration of internal conflicts and problems.
* Focusing on interpretations of transference, defense mechanisms, and current symptoms and the
working throughof these present problems.
* Trust in
insightas critically important for success in therapy.
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