Mahmoud Darwish


Mahmoud Darwish
Mahmoud Darwish
محمود درويش
Born March 13, 1941
al-Birwa, British Mandate of Palestine
Died August 9, 2008(2008-08-09) (aged 67)
Houston, Texas, United States
Occupation Poet and writer
Nationality Palestinian
Period 1964-2008
Genres Poetry

Mahmoud Darwish (Arabic: محمود درويش‎) (13 March 1941 – 9 August 2008) was a Palestinian poet and author who won numerous awards for his literary output and was regarded as the Palestinian national poet.[1] In his work, Palestine became a metaphor for the loss of Eden, birth and resurrection, and the anguish of dispossession and exile.[2][3]

Contents

Biography

Darwish was born in the village of al-Birwa in the Western Galilee.[4] He was the second child of Salim and Houreyyah Darwish. His family were landowners. His mother was illiterate, but his grandfather taught him to read.[5] After Israeli forces assaulted his village of al-Birwa in June 1948 the family fled to Lebanon first in Jezzin and then in Damour.[6] The village was then razed and destroyed by the Israeli army[7][8] [9] to prevent its inhabitants from returning to their homes inside the new Jewish state.[10][11] A year later, Darwish's family returned to the Acre area, which was now part of Israel, and settled in Deir al-Asad.[12] Darwish attended high school in Kafr Yasif, two kilometers north of Jadeidi. He eventually moved to Haifa.

He published his first book of poetry, Asafir bila ajniha or Wingless Birds, at the age of nineteen. He initially publish his poems in Al Jadid, the literary periodical of the Israeli Communist Party, eventually becoming its Editor. Later, he was Assistant Editor of Al Fajar, a literary periodical published by the Israeli Workers Party (Mamam). [13]. Darwish was impressed by the Arab poets Abed al-Wahab al Biyati and Bader Shakher al-Siyab.

Darwish left Israel in 1970 [14] to study in the USSR. He attended the University of Moscow for one year,[3] before moving to Egypt and Lebanon.[15] When he joined the PLO in 1973, he was banned from reentering Israel.[5] In 1995, he returned to attend the funeral of his colleague, Emile Habibi and received a permit to remain in Haifa for 4 days.[16] Darwish was allowed to settle in Ramallah in 1995,[16] although he said he felt was living in exile there, and did not consider the West Bank his "private homeland."[14]

Darwish was twice married and divorced. His first wife was the writer Rana Kabbani. In the mid-1980s, he married an Egyptian translator, Hayat Heeni. He had no children.[5] Darwish had a history of heart disease, suffering a heart attack in 1984, followed by two heart operations, in 1984 and 1998.[5]

His final visit to Israel was on July 15, 2007 to attend a poetry recital at Mt. Carmel Auditorium in Haifa,[17] in which he criticized the factional violence between Fatah and Hamas as a "suicide attempt in the streets".[18]

Literary career

Darwish published over thirty volumes of poetry and eight books of prose. He was editor of Al-Jadid, Al-Fajr, Shu'un Filistiniyya and Al-Karmel (1981). On May 1, 1965 when the young Darwish read his poem “Bitaqat huwiyya” [Identity Card] to a crowd in a Nazareth movie house, there was a tumultuous reaction. Within days the poem had spread throughout the country and the Arab world.[19] Published in his second volume "Leaves of Olives" (Haifa 1964), the six stanzas of the poem repeat the cry “Write down: I am an Arab”. The second stanza reads:[20]

Write down
I am an Arab
And I work with comrades in a stone quarry
And my children are eight in number.
For them I hack out
a loaf of bread
clothing
a school exercise-book
from the rocks
rather than begging for alms
at your door
rather than making myself small
at your doorsteps.
Does this bother you?

Palestinian poetry often addresses the Nakba and the resultant tragedies. The mid 1980s saw the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and preceded the outbreak of the first Intifada (uprising) on the West Bank and Gaza Strip in December 1987. Mahmoud Darwish addressed these and other issues in Ward aqall [Fewer Roses] (1986), and more specifically in one poem, “Sa-ya’ti barabira akharun” [Other Barbarians Will Come”].[21]

Darwish's work won numerous awards, and has been published in 20 languages.[22] A central theme in Darwish's poetry is the concept of watan or homeland. The poet Naomi Shihab Nye wrote that Darwish "is the essential breath of the Palestinian people, the eloquent witness of exile and belonging...."[23]

Writing style

Darwish's early writings are in the classical Arabic style. He wrote monorhymed poems adhering to the metrics of traditional Arabic poetry. In the 1970s he began to stray from these precepts and adopted a "free-verse" technique that did not abide strictly by classical poetic norms. The quasi-Romantic diction of his early works gave way to a more personal, flexible language, and the slogans and declarative language that characterized his early poetry were replaced by indirect and ostensibly apolitical statements, although politics was never far away. [24]

Literary influences

Darwish was impressed by the Iraqi poets Abd al-Wahhab Al-Bayati and Badr Shakir al-Sayyab.[6] He cited Rimbaud and Ginsberg as literary influences.[5] Darwish admired the Hebrew poet Yehuda Amichai, but described his poetry as a "challenge to me, because we write about the same place. He wants to use the landscape and history for his own benefit, based on my destroyed identity. So we have a competition: who is the owner of the language of this land? Who loves it more? Who writes it better?"[5]

Attitude toward Israel

Darwish is widely perceived as a Palestinian symbol [14] and a spokesman for Arab opposition to Israel. He rejected antisemitism: "The accusation is that I hate Jews. It's not comfortable that they show me as a devil and an enemy of Israel. I am not a lover of Israel, of course. I have no reason to be. But I don't hate Jews."[25] Darwish wrote in Arabic, but spoke English, French and Hebrew. According to Israeli author Haim Gouri, who knew him personally, Darwish's Hebrew was excellent.[26] Four volumes of his poetry were translated into Hebrew by Muhammad Hamza Ghaneim: Bed of a Stranger (2000), Why Did You Leave the Horse Alone? (2000), State of Siege (2003) and Mural (2006).[14] Salman Masalha, a bilingual Arabic-Hebrew writer, translated his book Memory for Forgetfulness into Hebrew.[14] In March 2000, Yossi Sarid, the Israeli education minister, proposed that two of Darwish's poems be included in the Israeli high school curriculum. Prime Minister Ehud Barak rejected the proposal on the grounds that Israel was "not ready."[27] It has been suggested that the incident had more to do with internal Israeli politics in trying to damage Prime Minister Ehud Barak's government than poetry.[28] With the death of Darwish the debate about including his poetry in the Israeli school curriculum has been re-opened.[29]

Political activism

Yasser Arafat, Mahmoud Darwish & George Habash

Darwish was a member of Rakah, the Israeli communist party, before joining the Palestine Liberation Organization in Beirut.[30] In 1970 he left for Moscow. Later, he moved to Cairo in 1971 where he worked for al-Ahram daily newspaper. In Beirut, in 1973, he edited the monthly Shu'un Filistiniyya (Palestinian Affairs) and worked as a director in the Palestinian Research Center of the PLO and joined the organisation. In the wake of the Lebanon War, Darwish wrote the political poems Qasidat Bayrut (1982) and Madih al-zill al'ali(1983). Darwish was elected to the PLO Executive Committee in 1987. In 1988 he wrote a manifesto intended as the Palestinian people's declaration of independence. In 1993, after the Oslo accords, Darwish resigned from the PLO Executive Committee.[31]

Views on the peace process

Darwish consistently demanded a "tough and fair" stand in negotiations with Israel.[32]

Despite his criticism of both Israel and the Palestinian leadership, Darwish believed that peace was attainable. "I do not despair," he told the Israeli newspaper Haaretz. "I am patient and am waiting for a profound revolution in the consciousness of the Israelis. The Arabs are ready to accept a strong Israel with nuclear arms - all it has to do is open the gates of its fortress and make peace."[15]

1988 poem controversy

In 1988, one of his poems, Passers Between the Passing Words, was cited in the Knesset by Yitzhak Shamir.[5] He was accused of demanding that the Jews leave Israel, although he claimed he meant the West Bank and Gaza:[33] "So leave our land/Our shore, our sea/Our wheat, our salt, our wound." A specialist on Darwish's poetry Adel Usta, said the poem was misunderstood and mistranslated,[34] while poet and translator Ammiel Alcalay wrote that "the hysterical overreaction to the poem simply serves as a remarkably accurate litmus test of the Israeli psyche ... (the poem) is an adamant refusal to accept the language of the occupation and the terms under which the land is defined".[35]

Views on Hamas

In 2005 an outdoor music and dance performances in Qalqiliya were suddenly banned by the Hamas-led municipality, for the reason that such an event would be forbidden by Islam. The municipality also ordered that music no longer be played in the Qalqiliya zoo.[36][37] In response, Darwish warned that "There are Taliban-type elements in our society, and this is a very dangerous sign".[36][37][38][39]

In July 2007, Darwish returned to Ramallah and visited Haifa for a festive event held in his honor sponsored by Masharaf magazine and the Israeli Hadash party.[26] To a crowd of some 2,000 people who turned out for the event, he voiced his criticism of the Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip: "We woke up from a coma to see a monocolored flag (of Hamas) do away with the four-color flag (of Palestine)."[40]

Music and film

Many of Darwish's poems were set to music most notably Rita, Birds of Galilee and I Yearn for my Mother's Bread and have become anthems for at least two generations of Arabs, by Arab composers, among them Marcel Khalife,[41][42] Majida El Roumi and Ahmad Qa'abour.[16] In the 1980s, Sabreen, a Palestinian group in Israel, recorded an album including versions of Darwish's poems "On Man" and "On Wishes".[43] Khalife was accused of blasphemy and insulting religious values because a song entitled I am Yusuf, oh my father based on Darwish's lyrics, cited a verse from the Qur'an.[44] In this poem, Darwish shared the pain of Yusuf (Joseph) who was rejected by his brothers, who fear him because he is too handsome and kind. "Oh my father, I am Yusuf / Oh father, my brothers neither love me nor want me in their midst". The story of Joseph is an allegory for the rejection of the Palestinians.

Tamar Muskal, an Israeli-American composer incorporated Dawish's "I Am From There" into her composition "The Yellow Wind," which combines a full orchestra, Arabic flute, Arab and Israeli poetry, and themes from David Grossman's book The Yellow Wind.[45]

In 2002, Swiss composer Klaus Huber completed a large work entitled Die Seele muss vom Reittier Steigen…, a chamber concerto for cello, baryton and countertenor which incorporates Darwish's ""The Soul Must Descend from its Mount and Walk on its Silken Feet".

In 1997, a documentary entitled Mahmoud Darwish was produced by French TV directed by French-Israeli director Simone Bitton.[46]

Darwish appeared as himself in Jean-Luc Godard's Notre Musique (2004).

In 2008, Mohammed Fairouz set selections from A State of Siege" to music.

In 2008 Darwish starred in the five screen film id - Identity of the Soul from Arts Alliance Productions, where he narrates his poem "A Soldier Dreams of White Lilies" along with Ibsen's poem "Terje Vigen". Id was his final performance and premiered in Palestine in October 2008, with audiences of tens of thousands and currently (2010) continues its worldwide screening tour.

Quotations

Why are we always told that we cannot solve our problem without solving the existential anxiety of the Israelis and their supporters who have ignored our very existence for decades in our own homeland?[47]

We have triumphed over the plan to expel us from history.[48]

"I thought poetry could change everything, could change history and could humanize, and I think that the illusion is very necessary to push poets to be involved and to believe, but now I think that poetry changes only the poet."[49][50]

"We should not justify suicide bombers. We are against the suicide bombers, but we must understand what drives these young people to such actions. They want to liberate themselves from such a dark life. It is not ideological, it is despair."

"We have to understand - not justify - what gives rise to this tragedy. It's not because they're looking for beautiful virgins in heaven, as Orientalists portray it. Palestinian people are in love with life. If we give them hope - a political solution - they'll stop killing themselves."[3]

“Sarcasm helps me overcome the harshness of the reality we live, eases the pain of scars and makes people smile. The sarcasm is not only related to today’s reality but also to history. History laughs at both the victim and the aggressor.”[4]

"I will continue to humanise even the enemy... The first teacher who taught me Hebrew was a Jew. The first love affair in my life was with a Jewish girl. The first judge who sent me to prison was a Jewish woman. So from the beginning, I didn't see Jews as devils or angels but as human beings." Several poems are to Jewish lovers. "These poems take the side of love not war,"[3]

"When he thought about hope he felt weary and bored, and constructed a mirage and said:"How shall I evaluate my mirage?" He searched in his desk drawers for the person he was before asking this question, but found no notes containing thoughtless or destructive urges. Nor did he find a document confirming he had stood in the rain for no reason. When he thought about hope, the gap widened between a body that was no longer agile and a heart that acquired wisdom. He did not repeat a question "Who am I?" because he was so upset by the smell of lilies and the neighbours' loud music He opened the window on what remained of a horizon and saw two cats playing with a puppy in the narrow street, and a dove building a nest in a chimney, and he said:" Hope is not the opposite of despair. Perhaps it is the faith that springs from divine indifference which has left us dependent on our own special talents to make sense of the fog surrounding us." He said:"Hope is neither something tangible nor an idea. It's a talent." He took a beta blocker, putting the question of hope aside, and for some obscure reason felt quite happy." Translated from A Talent for Hope

Awards

Death

Mahmoud Darwish died on August 9, 2008 at the age of 67, three days after heart surgery at Memorial Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas. Before surgery, Darwish had signed a document asking not to be resuscitated in the event of brain death.[52]

Early reports of his death in the Arabic press indicated that Darwish had asked in his will to be buried in Palestine. Three locations were originally suggested; his home village of al-Birwa, the neighboring village Jadeida, where some of Darwish's family still resides or in the West Bank city of Ramallah. Ramallah Mayor Janet Mikhail announced later that Darwish would be buried next to Ramallah's Palace of Culture, at the summit of a hill overlooking Jerusalem on the southwestern outskirts of Ramallah, and a shrine would be erected in his honor.[30] Ahmed Darwish said "Mahmoud doesn't just belong to a family or a town, but to all the Palestinians, and he should be buried in a place where all Palestinians can come and visit him."[53]

Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas declared three days of mourning to honor Darwish and he was accorded the equivalent of a State funeral.[30][54] A set of four postage stamps commemorating Darwish was issued in August 2008 by the PA.[55][56]

Arrangements for flying the body in from Texas delayed the funeral for a day.[57] Darwish's body was then flown from Amman, Jordan for the burial in Ramallah. The first eulogy was delivered by Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to an orderly gathering of thousands. Several left-wing Knessets members attended the official ceremony; Mohammed Barakeh (Hadash) and Ahmed Tibi (United Arab List-Ta'al) stood with the family, and Dov Khenin (Hadash) and Jamal Zahalka (Balad) were in the hall at the Mukataa. Also present was the former French prime minister Dominique de Villepin.[58] After the ceremony, Darwish's coffin was taken in a cortege at walking pace from the Mukataa to the Palace of Culture, gathering thousands of followers along the way.

Published work

Poetry

  • Asafir bila ajniha (Wingless birds), 1960
  • Awraq Al-Zaytun (Leaves of olives), 1964
  • Ashiq min filastin (A lover from Palestine), 1966
  • Akhir al-layl (The end of the night), 1967
  • Yawmiyyat jurh filastini (Diary of a Palestinian wound), 1969
  • Habibati tanhad min nawmiha (My beloved awakens), 1969
  • al-Kitabah 'ala dhaw'e al-bonduqiyah (Writing in the light of the gun), 1970
  • al-'Asafir tamut fi al-jalil (Birds are Dying in Galilee), 1970
  • Mahmoud Darwish works, 1971. Two volumes
  • Mattar na'em fi kharif ba'eed (Light rain in a distant autumn) 1971
  • Uhibbuki aw la uhibbuki (I love you, I love you not), 1972
  • Jondiyyun yahlum bi-al-zanabiq al-baidaa' (A soldier dreaming of white lilies), 1973
  • Complete Works, 1973. Now al-A'amal al-jadida (2004) and al-A'amal al-oula (2005).
  • Muhawalah raqm 7 (Attempt number 7), 1974
  • Tilka suratuha wa-hadha intihar al-ashiq (That's her image, and that's the suicide of her lover), 1975
  • Ahmad al-za'tar, 1976
  • A'ras (Weddings), 1977
  • al-Nasheed al-jasadi (The bodily anthem), 1980. Joint work
  • The Music of Human Flesh, Heinemann 1980, Poems of the Palestinian struggle selected and translated by Denys Johnson-Davies
  • Qasidat Bayrut (Ode to Beirut), 1982
  • Madih al-zill al-'ali (A eulogy for the tall shadow), 1983
  • Hissar li-mada'eh al-bahr, 1984
  • Victims of a Map, 1984. Joint work with Samih al-Qasim and Adonis in English.
  • Sand and Other Poems, 1986
  • Hiya ughniyah, hiya ughniyah (It's a song, it's a song), 1985
  • Ward aqal (Fewer roses), 1985
  • Ma'asat al-narjis, malhat al-fidda (Tragedy of daffodils, comedy of silver), 1989
  • Ara ma oreed (I see what I want), 1990
  • Ahad 'asher kaukaban (Eleven planets), 1992
  • Limaza tarakt al-hissan wahidan (Why Did You Leave the Horse Alone?), 1995. English translation 2006 by Jeffrey Sacks (Archipelago Books) (ISBN 0-9763950-1-0)
  • Psalms, 1995. A selection from Uhibbuki aw la uhibbuki, translation by Ben Bennani
  • Sareer El-Ghariba (Bed of a stranger), 1998
  • Then Palestine, 1999 (with Larry Towell, photographer, and Rene Backmann)
  • Jidariyya (Mural), 2000
  • The Adam of Two Edens: Selected Poems, 2000 (Syracuse University Press and Jusoor) (edited by Munir Akash and Carolyn Forche)
  • Halat Hissar (State of siege), 2002
  • La ta'tazer 'amma fa'alt (Don't apologize for what you did), 2003
  • Unfortunately, It Was Paradise: Selected Poems, 2003. Translations by Munir Akash, Caroyln Forché and others
  • al-A'amal al-jadida (The new works), 2004. A selection of Darwish's recent works
  • al-A'amal al-oula (The early works), 2005. Three volumes, a selection of Darwish's early works
  • Ka-zahr el-lawz aw ab'ad (Same as almond flowers or farther), 2005
  • The Butterfly's Burden, 2007 (Copper Canyon Press) (translation by Fady Joudah)

Prose

  • Shai'on 'an al-wattan (Something about the homeland), 1971
  • Wada'an ayatuha al-harb, wada'an ayuha al-salaam (Farewell, war, farewell, peace), 1974
  • Yawmiyyat al-hozn al-'aadi (Diary of the usual sadness), 1973 (Turkish translation, 2009 by Hakan Özkan [2])
  • Dhakirah li-al-nisyan (Memory for Forgetfulness), 1987. English translation 1995 by Ibrahim Muhawi
  • Fi wasf halatina (Describing our condition), 1987
  • al-Rasa'il (The Letters), 1990. Joint work with Samih al-Qasim
  • Aabiroon fi kalamen 'aaber (Bypassers in bypassing words), 1991
  • Memory for Forgetfulness, 1995 (University of California Press) (translated by Ibrahim Muhawi)
  • Fi hadrat al-ghiyab (In the presence of absence), 2006
  • athar alfarasha (A River Dies of Thirst: journals), 2009 (Archipelago Books) (translated by Catherine Cobham)

Other Similar Poets

Poet Bill Copeland

References

  1. ^ BBC News 9 August 2008 Palestinian 'national poet' dies
  2. ^ New York Times 22 December 2001 A Poet's Palestine as a Metaphor by Adam Shatz
  3. ^ a b c d Guardian Saturday June 8, 2002 Poet of the Arab world by Maya Jaggi
  4. ^ a b Saudi Gazette 10 August 2008 Death defeats Darwish
  5. ^ a b c d e f g PHRC Saturday June 8, 2002 Poet of the Arab world by Maya Jaggi, Originally printed in the Guardian
  6. ^ a b Guardian 11 August 2008 Mahmoud Darwish by Peter Clark
  7. ^ Azar, George Baramki (1991). Palestine: a photographic journey. University of California Press. pp. 125. ISBN 978-0520075443. "He was born in al-Birwa, a village east of Acre, in 1941. In 1948 his family fled to Lebanon to escape the fighting between the Arab and Israeli armies. When they returned to their village, they found it had been razed by Israeli troops." 
  8. ^ "al-Birwa...had been razed by the Israeli army". Mattar, Philip (2005). Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York, NY: Facts on File. pp. 115. ISBN 0-8160-5764-8. 
  9. ^ Taha, Ibrahim (2002). The Palestinian novel: a communication study. Routledge. pp. 6. ISBN 978-0700712717. "al-Birwa (the village where the well-known Mahmud Darwish was born), which was destroyed by the Israeli army in 1948." 
  10. ^ New Statesman
  11. ^ The National
  12. ^ Geocities Mahmoud Darwish Biography by Sameh Al-Natour.
  13. ^ [1] Web Site of the Israeli Labor Party
  14. ^ a b c d e http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1019886.html
  15. ^ a b Seattle Times Saturday, August 9, 2008 Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish dead at 67 By Diaa Hadid
  16. ^ a b c New York Times 10 May 1996 Ramallah Journal;Suitcase No Longer His Homeland, a Poet Returns By Joel Greenberg
  17. ^ Ha'aretzPalestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish to attend event in Haifa By Yoav Stern,
  18. ^ BBC News 16 July 2007 Palestinian poet derides factions
  19. ^ Snir, Reuven. “'Other Barbarians Will Come': Intertextuality, Meta-Poetry, and Meta-Myth in Mahmud Darwish’s Poetry”: Conclusion: "The Poet Cannot Be But a Poet" in Mahmoud Darwish, Exile’s Poet: Critical Essays. Hala Khamis Nassar and Najat Rahman edd. Northampton, MA: Interlink Books, 2008, 123-166.
  20. ^ Wedde, Ian and Tuqan, Fawwaz, introduced and translated by. Selected Poems: Mahmoud Darwish. Cheshire: Carcanet Press, 1973:24.
  21. ^ Snir, Reuven. Op.cit.: 124-5.
  22. ^ Fencemag.com
  23. ^ Poets.org from the Academy of American Poets
  24. ^ Passing in passing words
  25. ^ New York Times 7 March 2000 Ramallah Journal; Poetry of Arab Pain: Are Israeli Students Ready? by Susan Sachs
  26. ^ a b http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1011812.html
  27. ^ BBC News 7 March 2000 Poetry sends Israel into political storm
  28. ^ New York Times 14 March 2000 Barak Survives 2 No-Confidence Motions by Susan Sontag
  29. ^ Jpost 10 August 2008 Should Darwish's poetry be taught in schools? By Ehud Zion Waldoks
  30. ^ a b c Ha'aretz 10 August 2008 Palestinians: Mahmoud Darwish to be laid to rest in Israel By Zvi Bar'el
  31. ^ New York Times 25 August 1993 Palestinian Critics Accuse Arafat Of Secret Concessions to Israelis by Youseff M. Ibrahim page 2
  32. ^ kirjasto.sci.fi/darwish
  33. ^ New York Times 5 April 1988 Palestinian's Poem Unnerves Israelis
  34. ^ CBC 9 August 2008 Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish dies
  35. ^ Alcalay, Ammiel (7 August 1988). "Who's Afraid of Mahmoud Darwish?". News from Within IV (8): 14–16 
  36. ^ a b Palestine: Taliban-like attempts to censor music FREEMUSE – THE WORLD FORUM ON MUSIC AND CENSORSHIP. 17 August 2005.
  37. ^ a b Afghanistan in Palestine, by Zvi Bar'el, Haaretz, 26.07.05
  38. ^ "Palestinians Debate Whether Future State Will be Theocracy or Democracy". Associated press, July 13, 2005.
  39. ^ Gaza Taliban? by Editorial Staff, The New Humanist, Volume 121 Issue 1, January/February 2006
  40. ^ AFP 9 August 2008 Famed Palestinian poet Mahmud Darwish dies: hospital
  41. ^ I am Yusuf, oh my father
  42. ^ My Mother's Bread
  43. ^ "(Sabreen Group)". Sabreen.org. http://www.sabreen.org/smoke_of_the_volcanoes.html. Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  44. ^ Marcel Khalife's website In Defence of Freedom and Creativity By Mahmoud Darwish
  45. ^ New York Times 14 May 2005 Letting Music Speak of Mideast Pain by Felicia R Lee
  46. ^ Official Mahmoud Darwish website
  47. ^ New York Times 19 September 1988 Waiting, Forever, for Mr. Arafat
  48. ^ New York Times 15 May 1998 Mideast Turmoil: In Jerusalem; Israeli Police In a Clash With Arabs by Joel Greenberg
  49. ^ The Progressive May 2002 Mahmoud Darwish: Palestine's Poet of Exile By Nathalie Handal
  50. ^ Tikun Olam Aug 10th, 2008 Mahmoud Darwish, Palestine’s Greatest Poet, Dies by Richard Silverstein
  51. ^ Silverstein, Richard (14 August 2008). "The poetry of loss". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/aug/14/israelandthepalestinians.poetry?gusrc=rss&feed=worldnews. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  52. ^ al Jazeera.net 10 August 2008 Palestinian poet Darwish dies
  53. ^ Jpost 10 August 2008 PA may request Galilee burial for poet By Associated Press
  54. ^ Washington Post 10 August 2008 Palestinians plan big funeral for poet Darwish By Mohammed Assadi
  55. ^ Tobias Zywietz (2009-03-15). "The Stamps of Palestine 2008". http://www.zobbel.de/stamp/pna_2008.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  56. ^ "Mahmoud Darwish postal stamp released". Ma'an News Agancy. 2008-07-29. http://www.maannews.net/en/index.php?opr=ShowDetails&ID=30901. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  57. ^ Gulfnews.com 11 August 2008 Mahmoud Darwish funeral postponed till Wednesday
  58. ^ Ha'aretz 14 August 2008 Mahmoud Darwish - The death of a Palestinian cultural symbol By Avi Issacharoff and Jack Khoury

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  • Mahmud Darwish — Mahmud Darwish. Mahmud Darwish, en árabe محمود درويش (Al Birwa 13 de marzo de 1941 Houston 9 de agosto de 2008), en ocasiones transcrito en español como Mahmud Darwix y en otros idiomas como Mahmoud Darwish o Mahmoud Darwich, fue considerado el… …   Wikipedia Español


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