- Language arts
Language arts is the general academic subject area dealing with developing comprehension and capacity for use of written and oral language. The five strands of the Language arts are
reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing ( visual literacy), as established by the National Council of Teachers of English.
Reading, by definition, is the ability and knowledge of a language that allows comprehension by grasping the meaning of written or printed characters, words, or sentences. Reading involves a wide variety of print and nonprint texts that help a reader gain an understanding of what is being read. Reading allows a reader to acquire new information, gain knowledge and understanding, and for personal fulfillment. Reading of texts that are often included in educational curriculum include fiction, nonfiction, classic, and contemporary works.
Each state in the United States sets standards for reading that are incorporated into the local curriculum that are taught within the school system. In partnership with the
International Reading Association(IRA), The National Council of Teachers of English(NCTE) offers standards for teaching language arts. The list of 12 standards that offer guidance for the opportunities and resources students should have in order to develop the language skills they need.
The IRA/NCTE standards concerning reading are: [ [http://www.ncte.org/about/over/standards/110846.htm The Standards ] ]
reada wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.
*Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many
genresto build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience.
*Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other
readersand writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics.
Composition is defined as the combination of distinct parts or elements to form a whole and the manner in which these elements are combined or related. The following are examples of Composition in Language Arts:
* The art or act of composing a
* The structure or organization of literature
* A short
essay, especially one written as an academic exercise (an essay is a short literary composition on a particular themeor subject, usually in proseand generally analytic, speculative, or interpretative) [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/ Dictionary.com ] ] There are many types of short essays, including, but not limited to:
#Cause and effect essay
Compositions may also include:
* Technical Writing
According to The National Council of Teachers of English, the standards for composition are: [ [http://www.ncte.org/about/over/standards/110846.htm The Standards ] ]
*Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure,
*Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions,
style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.
*Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.
*Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and
punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and non-print texts.
*Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).
Grammaris the study of the structure and features of a language. Grammar usually consists of rules and standards that are to be followed to produce acceptable writing and speaking. [ [http://www.armour.k12.sd.us/Mary's%20Classes/literary terms glossary.htm Armour.K12.sd] ]
Parts of Speech
nounis a word used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
A collective noun names a group, while a compound noun consists of two or more words used together as a single noun. Some compound nouns are written as one word, some as separate words, and others as hyphenated words.
verbis a word that expresses action or a state of being.
** An action verb expresses physical or mental activity: runs, thinks, hope, studies.
** A transitive verb is an action verb that takes an "object," a word that tells who or what receives the action.
** An intransitive verb is an action verb that does not take an object.
** A linking verb, (or "state-of-being" verb), connects the subject with a word that identifies or describes it.
** A verb phrase consists of a main verb and at least one "auxiliary" verb. Common auxiliary verbs are forms of "to be," forms of "have," forms of "do," and can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would.
adverbis a word used to modify a verb, and adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs modify by telling "how," "when," "where," or "to what extent."
prepositionis a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence. A preposition always introduces a prepositional phrase. The noun or the pronoun that ends the prepositional phrase is the "object of the preposition."
These are the commonly used prepositions: "aboard, about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, besides, between, beyond, but" (meaning "except"), "by, concerning, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, outside, over, past, since, through, to, toward, under, until, up, upon, with, within, without." Note, however, that some words function as adverbs "or" prepositions depending on its use in the sentence.
The "compound prepositions" are: "according to, because of, aside from, in addition to, in front of, instead of, next to, on account of", and "prior to".
conjunctionis a word used to join words or groups of words.
A coordinating conjunction joins words or groups of words used in the same way: "and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet." Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to join words or groups of words used in the same way: "both...and, either...or, neither...nor, whether...or, not only...but also." Finally, a subordinating conjunction begins a subordinate clause and connects it to an independent clause: "after, although, as, as if, as much, as, as though, as well as, because, before, even though, how, if, in order that, provided, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while, why."
interjectionis a word that expresses emotion. It has no grammatical relation to other words in the sentence. An interjection is set off from the other words in a sentence by an exclamation point or a comma. An example is: "Wow!" Your new haircut looks great." The common interjections are: "hey", "wow", "ouch", and "no".
International Reading Association(IRA) and The National Council of Teachers of English(NCTE) offer standards for teaching language arts that address the importance of students acquiring multiple literacy skills:
*Hacker, Diana. "A Pocket Style Manuel." New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000.
* [http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/newcatalog.aspx?isbn=0312452756 BedfordstMartins.com]
* [http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/ English.purdue.edu]
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Look at other dictionaries:
language arts — pl.n. the subjects taught in elementary and secondary schools for improving oral and written communication … English World dictionary
Language Arts — The term Language Arts may mean:* Language, an academic study, sometimes also specialized as linguistics * Language Arts (1996 album) by the artist Buck 65 * Language Arts, an Augusta, Georgia rock band … Wikipedia
language arts — lan′guage arts′ n. pl. edu verbal and written skills taught in elementary and secondary schools to improve proficiency in using language … From formal English to slang
language arts — noun plural : the subjects (as reading, spelling, literature, composition, debate, dramatics) taught in elementary and secondary schools that aim at developing the learner s comprehension of written and oral language as well as his use of it for… … Useful english dictionary
language arts — noun plural Date: 1948 the subjects (as reading, spelling, literature, and composition) that aim at developing the student s comprehension and capacity for use of written and oral language … New Collegiate Dictionary
language arts — the skills, including reading, composition, speech, spelling, and dramatics, taught in elementary and secondary schools to give students a thorough proficiency in using the language. [1945 50] * * * … Universalium
Language Arts (album) — Infobox Album Name = Language Arts Type = Album Longtype = Artist = Buck 65 Released = 1996 Recorded = Genre = hip hop, alternative hip hop Length = 68:23 Label = Four Ways To Rock/Metaphorensics Warner (reissue) Producer = Buck 65 Reviews = Last … Wikipedia
Dubard School For Language Arts — The Dubard School For Language Arts is a school on the campus of The University of Southern Mississippi that specializes in language problems. The center also provides the schools day care center … Wikipedia
language — swearwords A shortened form of bad language: I ll have no man usin language i my house. (D. Murray, 1886 he was not a Trappist abbot) In America language arts is educational and sociological jargon for the ability to speak coherently … How not to say what you mean: A dictionary of euphemisms
Language attrition — is the loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language by individuals; it should be distinguished from language loss within a community (the latter process is referred to as language shift or language death). Language attrition… … Wikipedia