Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak


Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak

Shaikh Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak (Persian:ابو الفضل) also known as Abu'l-Fazl, Abu'l Fadl and Abu'l-Fadl 'Allami (January 14, 1551 - August 12, 1602) was the vizier of the great Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the "Akbarnama", the official history of Akbar's reign in three volumes, the third volume is known as the "Ain-i-Akbari" and a Persian translation of Bible [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/bio?anum=0007 Abu al Fazl Biography and Works] persian.packhum.org.]

Biography

Abu'l Fazl was the fifth descendant of Shaikh Musa who lived in Rel in Siwistan (Sindh). His grandfather, Shaikh Khizr settled at Nagaur, where his father Shaikh Mubarak was born. Initially Shaikh Mubarak studied in Nagaur under Khwaja Ahrar. Later he went to Ahmedabad and studied under Shaikh Abu'l Fazl, Shaikh Umar and Shaikh Yusuf. Finally, he settled in Agra, where his eldest son, poet Abu'l Faizi and his second son Abu'l Fazl were born [Blochmann, H. (tr.) (1927, reprint 1993) "The Ain-I Akbari by Abu'l-Fazl Allami", Vol.I, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, pp.xxv-lix] He came to Akbar's court in 1575 and was influential in Akbar's religious views becoming more liberal into the 1580s and 1590s. He also led the Mughal imperial army in its wars in the Deccan.

He was assassinated by Vir Singh Bundela (who later became the ruler of Orchha) between Sarai Vir and Antri (near Narwar) in a plot contrived by the Mughal Prince Salim [ [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/personalisation/object.cfm?uid=019PHO0000050S2U00134000 Orchha] British Library.] , who later became the Emperor Jahangir in 1602, because Abu'l Fazl was known to oppose the accession of Prince Salim to the throne. His severed head was sent to Salim at Allahabad. Abul Fazl was buried at Antri [Majumdar, R.C. (2007). "The Mughul Empire", Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p.167] [Blochmann, H. (tr.) (1927, reprint 1993) "The Ain-I Akbari by Abu'l-Fazl Allami", Vol.I, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, pp.lxviii-lxix] . Abu'l Fazl's son Shaikh Abdur Rahman Afzal Khan (December 29, 1571 - 1613) was later appointed governor of Bihar in 1608 by Jahangir [Blochmann, H. (tr.) (1927, reprint 1993) "The Ain-I Akbari by Abu'l-Fazl Allami", Vol.I, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, pp.lviii-lix] .

Works

The Akbarnama

The Akbarnama is a document of history of Akbar’s reign and his ancestors spread over three volumes. It contains the history of Akbar’s ancestors from Timur to Humayun, Akbar’s reign up to the 46th regnal year (1602), and an administrative report of Akbar’s empire, the Ain-i-Akbari, which itself is in three volumes. The third volume of Ain-i-Akbari gives an account of the ancestry and life of the author. The Ain-i-Akbari was completed in the 42nd regnal year, but a slight addition was made to it in the 43th regnal year on the account of the conquest of BerarMajumdar, R.C. (2007). "The Mughul Empire", Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.5-6] [Blochmann, H. (tr.) (1927, reprint 1993) "The Ain-I Akbari by Abu'l-Fazl Allami", Vol.I, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, p.liii] .

Ruqaʿāt

The Ruqaʿāt or the Ruqaʿāt-i-Abu'l Fazl is a collection of private letters from Abū al-Fażl to Murad, Daniyal, Akbar, Mariam Makani, Salim (Jahangir), Akbar's queens and daughters, his father, mother and brothers and several other notable contemporariesMajumdar, R.C. (2007). "The Mughul Empire", Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.5-6] compiled by his nephew Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad.

Inshā-i-Abu'l Fazl

The Inshā-i-Abu'l Fazl or the Maqtubāt-i-Allami contains the official despatches written by Abu'l Fazl. It is divided into two parts. The first part contains Akbar's letters to Abdullah Khan Uzbeg of Turan, Shah Abbas of Persia, Raja Ali Khan of Khandesh, Burhan-ul-Mulk of Ahmadnagar and his own nobles such as Abdur Rahim Khan Khanan. The second part consists Abu'l Fazl's letters to Akbar, Daniyal, Mirza Shah Rukh and Khan KhananMajumdar, R.C. (2007). "The Mughul Empire", Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.5-6] . This collection was compiled by Abd-us-samad, son of Afzal Muhammad, who claims that he was Abu'l Fazl's sister's son as well as his son-in-law [Blochmann, H. (tr.) (1927, reprint 1993) "The Ain-I Akbari by Abu'l-Fazl Allami", Vol.I, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, p.liii] .

References

Further reading

*Rizvi, Saiyid Athar Abbar. "Religious and Intellectual History of the Muslims in Akbar's Reign: With Special Reference to Abu'l Fazl". New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1975.

External links

* The Akbarnama available online at: http://persian.packhum.org/persian/


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