- F-4 Phantom II non-U.S. operators
F-4 Phantom II non-U.S. operators are the non-U.S. nations with
air forces that operate and use the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II. The Phantom II entered service with the U.S. military in 1960 and served until 1996. During this time it was the primary interceptor, air superiority fighter and fighter bomber with the U.S. Navy, Marines and Air Force.
The Phantom II was exported to eleven other nations, and continues to serve in a military role in some parts of the world.
In March 1963,
McDonnell Douglasoffered to provide the RAAF with a modified version of the F-4C, the model 98DX, fitted with SNECMA Atar9 engines. This engine was already used in the RAAF's Mirage IIIOs, but the French turbojet was inferior to the General Electric J79, and the RAAF chose instead to order the F-111C "Aardvark" which had a greater range.Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jbaugher1/f4_40.html "Phantom with Royal Australian Air Force."] Phantom II, December 1999. Retrieved: 11 November 2007.]
Since the development of the F-111 was plagued with many setbacks, it was expected that the order for the RAAF would not be ready before 1974, leaving the Australian air force short of a suitable aircraft. The need to replace their Canberra B.20s was frustrated by the delay in the development of the F-111.
The solution was to loan F-4Es to the RAAF, under the "Peace Reef" programme. On
22 June 1970, the contract was signed, and the first of 24 new F-4Es arrived the following September. They served with Nos. 1 and 6 Squadrons, both based at RAAF Base Amberley. The Australian aircrews praised the choice and the F-4Es were so well received that their popularity threatened the F-111C order at one point.
The first six aircraft were returned in October 1972, with another five returned in November 1972. The first six F-111Cs were delivered in June 1973, and the rest of the F-4Es were returned to the United States Air Force.Lake 1992. ]
In 1972 the United States offered to sell the leased aircraft to Australia. Earlier the Americans had offered to sell 48 aircraft, including RF-4Es if the RAAF had cancelled the F-111C. On balance the F-4 would need to be supported by eight
KC-135 Stratotankers to achieve the endurance required in Australian service with in-flight refuelling, making the whole package uneconomical compared to the F-111C with its greater range. Also, acquisition of the Phantom would have required disbanding at least one Mirage squadron in order to provide the necessary aircrew (No. 82 Wing’s aircrew were to be converted to the F-111). The F-111C programme was resumed in December 1971.
One Phantom (69-7203) was lost in an accident during Australian service off
Evans Head, New South Walesduring night bombing practice on 16 June, 1971, while the others went on to follow a long career with the United States Air Force, with 21 examples later modified to F-4G "Wild Weasel" specifications and used mainly by the 35th TFW.
Royal Australian Air Force
No. 1 Squadron RAAF
No. 6 Squadron RAAF
No. 2 Operational Conversion Unit RAAF
The Al Quwwat al Jawwiya il Misriya (Arab Republic of
EgyptAir Force or AREAF) encountered Israeli F-4s during the 1967 and 1973 wars and recognized their effectiveness, especially as bombers.
Camp David Accords, and the Israel-Egypt Peace Treatysigned on March 26, 1979, Egypt ended its military dependence on the Soviet Unionand also lost the financial support of the other Arab states. Saudi Arabia cancelled its plans to send 50 F-5s to Egypt. The U.S. State Department proposed trading Egypt new military hardware in exchange for military aircraft made in the USSR, including MiG-21s, and the newer MiG-23s delivered to them by the Soviets prior to their breakdown of relations in 1976. [Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jBaugher1/f4_42.html "Phantom with Egypt."] Phantom II, January 2000. Retrieved: 13 November 2007.]
Under the September 1977 "Peace Pharaoh" agreement, 35 ex-31 TFW F-4Es along with a number of Sparrow, Sidewinder, and Maverick missiles were supplied to the AREAF for US$594 million and served with 76 and 78 Squadrons of the 222 Fighter Regiment. Fricker 2000, p. 59.] Initially Egyptian ground crews found their maintenance far more complex than required for Soviet aircraft and consequently there was an average of only nine F-4s serviceable during 1982, a 26% serviceability rate. To correct the situation, Egypt considered selling some of the F-4s to
Turkeyand buying extra F-16s. However, assistance from U.S. advisors in 1985 made it possible to reach a reasonable serviceability rate, and in 1988 another seven F-4s were delivered. While further purchases of F-4s and upgrades were considered, these plans were rejected in favour of further orders for F-16s. Fricker 2000, p.60.]
By the end of the 1990s, three aircraft had crashed but were replaced with three others. [Lake 1992, p.209.] Two squadrons of F-4s are still in service with the 222nd Regiment. [ [http://www.scramble.nl/eg.htm Egyptian Air Force Order of Battle] . "Scramble Magazine".
November 18 2007. Retrieved: 29 January 2008.] They are mainly employed as support for F-16s and Mirages.Fact|date=November 2007
Egyptian Air Force
*222nd TFB (Wing)
In 1971 the new West German Luftwaffe was only 16 years old, having been reformed in 1955. In this short time the air force had already passed through two generations of jet combat aircraft, having bought the
F-86 Sabreand the F-104 Starfighter.
By the early 1970s the Luftwaffe had a formidable fighter strength, consisting of two interceptor, two reconnaissance and five bomber wings with F-104Gs, plus four light attack wings with
Aeritalia G.91Rs. Niccoli and Sacchetti 1991, p. 51.]
The first F-4 model to enter German service was the RF-4E. The Luftwaffe signed a contract with
McDonnell Douglasfor 88 RF-4Es in 1968; at the time the biggest order outside the USAF. The contract included industrial offsets for German industry, particularly production work for Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm who manufactured and supplied F-4 components to McDonnell Douglas' Phantom production facility in St. Louis.
16 January 1971, the first RF-4E, dubbed the "Spirit of St. Louis", flew from the USA to Spain and finally onto Germany. The next day, at Bremgarten the aircraft was accepted by the Inspekteur der Luftwaffe, Gunther Rall. [Niccoli and Sacchetti 1991, p. 52.]
In 1972, with eight Phantoms per month being delivered, AG 51 'Immelmann' equipped with the RF-4, followed by AG 52, based at
The German RF-4E was equipped similarly to the USAF RF-4Cs, using the latest F-4E airframe and more powerful engines. The RF-4Es were employed as day/night reconnaissance aircraft, equipped with four cameras covering 180 degrees. There were special flares for night use and two night/all-weather reconnaissance systems. One was the IRRS (Infrared Recognition System) and the other was the SLAR (Side-Looking Airborne Radar), mounted in the side of the fuselage. The aircraft had the capability to develop photos in flight and then drop them using special cartridges. Missions were generally flown at low level and high speed, using the installed APQ-99 radar for navigation. Deliveries were completed in May 1972 and the previously employed RF-104Gs were modified to serve in strike or fighter units.
The Luftwaffe also intended to equip two fighter and two bomber Wings (Geschwaders) with a simplified single-seat version of the F-4E Phantom which had already been proposed for the TFX USAF program. This was reconsidered due to the cost of that version and instead, under the "Peace Rhine" program, the Luftwaffe purchased the F-4F, which was based on the F-4E.
The F-4F had one of the seven fuselage fuel tanks omitted along with the capability to carry
AIM-7 Sparrowmissiles and bombs. It was equipped with air combat maneuvering leading edge slatsand had a higher thrust to weight ratio, approaching 1:1 when fuel was low. The first example, serial number 3701, first flew on 18 March 1973. The first eight were sent to George AFBwhere crew training was carried out. In 1976, these trainers were replaced with 10 F-4Es, which stayed in the USA. One of the "F"s, serial number 72-118, remained at Eglin AFBas an experimental project aircraft.Units equipped with F-4F included Jagdgeschwader 71'Richthofen', Wittmund, commencing in May 1974, and Jagdgeschwader 74'Molders', Neuburgin September 1975. In April 1975 deliveries started to JaboG 36, Rheine-Hopsten and finally JaboG 35, Pferdsfeld. Operationally the F-4Fs used by JG-71 and JG-74 were employed in the air-to-air role, while those used by JaboG 35 and 36 were used in air-to-air and air-to-ground roles.
Weapons used on the F-4F included the Mk 82 retarded bomb,
BL755 cluster bombunit and AIM-9 Sidewinders. Later on an AGM-65 Maverickcapability was added, with a pair of missiles housed in a single launcher.
Luftwaffe aircrew training was conducted by the USAF at
Sheppard AFB. The program included 13 months flying the T-37 and T-38, for a total of 200 hours in total for pilots and 85 hours for navigators.
Training in Europe was limited to a minimum of 150 metres (500 ft) altitude, with special ranges permitting flight as low as 60 metres (200 ft). Advanced training was conducted in Canada at
CFB Goose Bayand at Decimomannuin Sardinia.
By 1990, Phantom losses were 21 F-4Fs and 15 RF-4Es.
RF-4E upgrades and disposal
Reconnaissance Phantom updates were carried out during several separate programs. Under the "Peace Trout" program, one RF-4E upgrade had an
ELINTsystem installed in the nose, based on the APR-39 of the F-4G. Another RF-4E update was the installation of provision for bombs, with up to six BL-755 or 2,270 kilograms (5,000 lb) of other external stores and an ALE-40 chaff launcher, along with a bombing system and newer cameras. In 1988 the aircraft were stood down from this dual role due to cost and this capability was removed. [Thornborough and Davies 1994, p. 233.]
After the reduction of conventional forces in Europe, the Luftwaffe began phasing out the RF-4Es in 1993-94. The surplus aircraft were supplied to Allied NATO nations, with 32 sent to Turkey and 20 to Greece. AG 51 received
Panavia Tornados as a replacement, while AG 52 was disbanded.
F-4F upgrades and disposal
Twelve F-4Fs were initially modified for dual controls and were later de-modified. In 1980–1983 the F-4F fleet was fitted with air-refuelling probes, utilizing USAF tankers to make longer flights to Canada and Spain. The AIM-9B and F were replaced with the "L" version Sidewinder.
The "ICE" (Improved Combat Efficiency) program commenced in 1983 to upgrade the F-4F's air-to-air capabilities. This involved the APG-65 radar and
AIM-120 AMRAAMas the main elements, along with many minor upgrades. The original plan was to upgrade 75 F-4Fs, but the number was increased to 110 in the late 1980s. Initially the ICE upgrades were intended only for the interceptor wings, but more were upgraded due to delays in the Eurofighter Typhoonprogram.Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jBaugher1/f4_43.html "Phantom with Luftwaffe."] Phantom II, December 1999. Retrieved: 29 January 2008.]
Phase 1 of ICE commenced in 1989–90 and included upgrades, such as the ALR-68
Radar warning receiver, the Honeywell H-423 laser gyro inertial navigation system, the GEC Avionics CPU-143/A digital central air data computer, and the Mil Std 1553R digital data bus.
In July 1989 the first F-4F ICE Phase 2 aircraft was completed, and on 22 November 1991 the first firing of an AIM-120 AMRAAM took place. In 1992 the first batch of six upgraded aircraft were delivered to JG 71, but the AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles were not available at that time. [Mazzardi and Maffioli 1993, p. 24.]
The F-4Fs were employed to fill operational gaps twice; the first time due to
Panavia Tornadodelays, while the F-4F ICE was needed due to the Eurofighter Typhoondelays. The units equipped with F-4F ICE were JG71, JG 72, JG 74 and JG 73. This latter was a mixed unit, sent to Preschen airbase and had one staffel of F-4s and one with MiG-29s. This was a unique situation, until the phasing out of the Fulcrums.Mazzardi and Maffioli 1993, p. 16.] [Mazzardi and Maffioli 1993, p. 18.]
The F-4F ICE program offered a reasonably inexpensive and capable aircraft for the interceptor role, albeit with limitations. Apart from natural deficiencies of the air frame design itself, the greatest drawbacks of the F-4F ICE are the missing IFF system and the non-existent
MIDScapability. In beyond-visual-range scenarios, it therefore has to rely on target-identification by AWACS aircraft with which it has to communicate in a conventional voice-based manner. This together with the low number of procured AIM-120Bs (only 96, because Germany has ordered the MBDA Meteor, which however will not be available until 2013) and the outdated APG-65 radar makes it a rather defensive system.
In 1992–94 the EFA program was reviewed by German Defence Minister Wolfang Ruhe and there was extensive debate about the Luftwaffe's future. At the end of 1994 there were about 70 F-4F ICE aircraft already modified, 40 were still waiting for APG-65 radar and 40 were not modified but still in service. The costs sustained in the upgrades had incurred a delay in AMRAAM acquisition. At that time, it was hoped that the AIM-120 could be received by 2005 and then there were only funds for 96 missiles with an option for 288 more. The program review considered ending F-4F conversions and buying new fighters as "gap fillers", such as the MiG-29,
F-15 Eagleor F-16. There was doubt that even a simplified version of the Typhoon could be acquired. [Bonsignore 1994, pp. 40–46.] The review resulted in F-4F ICE being completed. The lack of AMRAAMs was a serious handicap and the MiG 29s were retained for longer than had been planned.
The ICE F-4Fs are expected to remain in service until JG-71 "Richthofen" (Fighter Wing 71) transitions to the
Eurofighter Typhoonin 2012.List 2006, p. 51.] JG-73 "Steinhoff" (Fighter Wing 73) retired its last F-4F in 2002 and replaced it with Eurofighters in 2003, while the replacement of the F-4F in the JG-74 (Fighter Wing 74) is currently underway with the last F-4F leaving the wing in March 2008. The remaining F-4F Wings have already been disbanded without replacement during the 1990s and early 2000s.
German Air Force
Jagdbombergeschwader 35(JaboG 35)
Jagdbombergeschwader 36(JaboG 36)
*Aufklärungsgeschwader 51 (AG 51 "Immelmann")
Aufklärungsgeschwader 52(AG 52)
Jagdgeschwader 71(JG 71 "Richthofen")
Jagdgeschwader 72(JG 72 "Westfallen")
Jagdgeschwader 73(JG 73 "Steinhoff")
Jagdgeschwader 74(JG 74 "Mölders")
Wehrtechnische Dienstelle fur Luftfahrzeuge 61
At the end of the 1960s, the
Hellenic Air Force(PA - "Polemikí Aeroporía") embarked upon a modernization program by ordering 40 Dassault Mirage F.1s and a total of 56 F-4Es along with six RF-4Es. The final batch of 40 F-4Es were cancelled when a leftist government was elected in 1981.Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jBaugher1/f4_45.html "Phantom with Greece."] Phantom II. April 2000. Retrieved: 13 November 2007.]
The first 18 Greek Phantoms entered in service in 1974, partially funded by U.S. military assistance under "Operation Icarus". However, they did not enter service in time to fight in the
Turkish invasion of Cyprusin 1974. A second batch of F-4Es plus two extra aircraft were delivered in 1976, followed by a final batch in 1978–79. The first units equipped were the 339th Squadron in 1974 in the air-to-air role and also as the operational training unit; and the 338th Squadron, in 1975 in the ground-attack role. The 337th "Ghost" Squadron was equipped in 1978, giving up their Northrop F-5As. The 348th "Eyes" Squadron relinquished their RF-84Fs for new RF-4Es in 1979. The old RF-84Fs were retained until 1990 for training purposes. [Rollino 1992, p. 16.]
The last batch of 40 Phantoms was not delivered due to the political situation in Greece, but with the Iraqi invasion of
Kuwaitand the U.S.-led Operation Desert Stormliberation, the situation changed. The USAF phased out many older aircraft and some were supplied to the PA as a thank-you for the use of Greek airbases during the war. These included 10 ex-Indiana Air National Guard aircraft, followed by another 18. By 1992 there were four squadrons equipped with 73 F-4Es and 5 RF-4E in service. These were the 348th and 337th squadrons in Larissaand 338th and 339th squadrons at Andravidawith the 115th Combat Wing.Rollino 1992, p. 18.]
There were many differences between the batches supplied to the Hellenic Air Force. The 338th "Ares" Squadron had an air-to-surface role. Their F-4Es were equipped with digital processors for the APG-120, laser
inertial navigation systems, digital data buses, smoke-reduction systems and various structural improvements.
Upgrades and further developments
One of the first measures taken by the PA was to increase the number of reconnaissance RF-4Es in their fleet, to augment the existing six. They were able to do this in 1993, when the Luftwaffe phased out their RF-4Es and 29 ex-Luftwaffe aircraft were added to the 248th Mira. This last batch brought the number of F-4s serving with the PA to 121.Fricker 2000, p. 82.] Other programs saw the upgrade of several Greek Phantoms to carry out anti-radar operations.
In 1993 the PA called for a major electronic upgrade for the F-4 fleet, involving the replacement of the APQ-120 with a new AMRAAM-capable system. Contenders to conduct the upgrade were DASA,
Rockwell International, and IAI. IAI was ruled out because it was already involved with the Greek's historical adversary, Turkey, upgrading their Phantoms at this time. Fricker 2000, p. 63.]
DASA won the contract in August 1997, dubbed "Peace Icarus 2000". The Greek F-4s were upgraded to a similar standard as the Luftwaffe F-4F ICE, including APG-65 radar, a GEC-Marconi HUD and GPS/INS. The first flight of an upgraded aircraft was on 28 April 1999 at
Manchingairbase. In total 38 aircraft were upgraded, 37 of them by Hellenic Aerospace Industry, at Tanagra. Phantoms were also provided with Rafael LITENING pods, capable of navigation, targeting and use of guided weapons, such as the AGM-65 Maverick. With these improvements, the F-4 ICE and F-4G "Wild Weasel" will remain an effective fighter well into the 21st century.
Hellenic Air Force
*110th Combat Wing
**348th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron "Eyes"
*117th Combat Wing
**338th Fighter-Bomber Squadron "Ares"
**348th Fighter Squadron "Ajax"
Approximately 225 F-4Ds, RF-4Es and F-4Es were delivered to
Iran, mostly during the 1960s and 70s.Fricker 2000, p.64]
The Nirou Havai Shahanshahiye Iran (
Imperial Iranian Air Force) enjoyed more attention from Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi than any other military branch. By 1967 the air force had F-4Ds on order, at that time the most advanced Phantom model available. The original order was for 16 aircraft; the first of which arrived on 8 September 1968,Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jBaugher1/f4_44.html "Phantom with Iran."] Phantom II, April 2000. Retrieved: 29 January 2008.] with another 16 added later, and were employed in several unsuccessful attempts to intercept MiG-25Rs. These aircraft were also used for ground attack, and during one such mission rebels in Omanshot one down.
In 1970 the first reconnaissance RF-4Es were delivered. Iran, with few fiscal restraints, followed that up with an order for 177 F-4Es. The first of these arrived in March 1971. During a border clash in 1976, these F-4s, armed with
AGM-65 Mavericks defeated an Iraqi armoured ground formation. The F-4Es changed the balance of power in the region; they were not only effective on the battlefield but available in large numbers as well.
After the fall of the Shah in 1979, the situation changed dramatically. In 1979 the U.S. placed an embargo on Iran, preventing them from getting many spare parts to keep the fleet flying. To make matters worse, the new theocratic government carried out purges of suspected Shah loyalists in the armed forces, especially in the renamed Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF). The purges greatly weakened the air force and left the 180 Phantoms still in service, largely without trained air and ground crews.
Iran–Iraq Warbegan in September 1980 with Saddam Hussein's attack on Iran. Hussein had equipped his air force with new aircraft, such as the MiG-23 and believed that Iran was in a weakened and vulnerable state following the revolution and subsequent purges. The Iranian forces surprised him and fought back effectively. Iraq failed to destroy the Iranian air force bases for several reasons, among them that Iraqi aircraft lacked the range to reach them. Another reason was that Iranian air bases had been built for USAF deployment in case of war with the Soviet Union. This meant that the bases were very large, well dispersed and stocked with ample spare parts. This made the targets difficult for the small Iraqi air force to destroy. [Cooper, Tom. [http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_273.shtml "Early MiG-23M/MS Floggers in Action."] September 2003. Retrieved: 13 November 2007.]
The Iraqi air force performed a very deep strike of more than 520 kilometres inside Iran, but this small formation was intercepted by two Iranian F-4s and one or two MiGs were lost. F-4s struck back the following day and destroyed many strategic Iraqi targets with bombs and missiles. After these attacks against strategic targets, the F-4s struck tactical battlefield targets, destroying many Iraqi armoured vehicles. The Iraqi invasion was stopped within several weeks.Fact|date=November 2007
Due to battlefield and accidental losses and the lack of spare parts, by the middle 1980s there were just 20–30 Iranian Phantoms still flying. The quantity of weapons and spare parts was not enough to sustain the fleet, but Iran is believed to have benefited from foreign assistance with clandestine shipments of up to 23 new airframes plus spares from Israel [Beit-Hallahmi 1987, p. 14.] and the United States (during the
Iran-Contra Affair), as well as from locally-designed and reverse-engineered components and weapons, and incorporation of ex-Soviet and Chinese technology. The aircraft of an Iranian F-4 pilot who deserted on 31 August 1984 to Saudi Arabia was examined and found to have Israeli and European spare parts installed. Another deserting F-4 was less lucky, being intercepted and shot down by Saudi F-15 Eagles on 5 June 1984. F-4s took part in interdiction missions against oil tankers using AGM-65 Maverickmissiles and even AIM-9 Sidewinderair-to-air missiles, while bombs were not used, probably due to shortages.Fact|date=November 2007
Imperial Iranian Air Force
Western Area Command:
*Noaheh (OIHH) Hamadan, Shahrokhi)
**3rd Tactical Air Base
***31st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: RF-4E
***32nd Tactical Fighter Squadron: F-4D and F-4E
***33rd Tactical Fighter Squadron: F-4D and F-4E
Southern Area Command:
**6th Tactical Air Base
***61st Tactical Fighter Squadron: F-4E
***62nd Tactical Fighter Squadron: F-4D and F-4E
*Bandar Abbas Int'l (OIKB)
**9th Tactical Air Base
***91st Tactical Fighter Squadron: F-4E
***92nd Tactical Fighter Squadron: F-4E
*Chah Bahar (OIZC) (Chabahar)
**10th Tactical Air Base
***101st Tactical Fighter Squadron: F-4D
About 220 F-4Es and RF-4Es were delivered to
Israelbetween 1969 and 1976 under U.S. aid programs, and served with the Tsvah Haganah le Israel/Heyl Ha'Avir ( Israeli Air Force). The F-4E was known as "Kurnass" (Heavy Hammer) in Israeli service while the RF-4E was called "Orev" (Raven).Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jBaugher1/f4_41.html "Phantom with Israel."] Phantom II, April 2000. Retrieved: 30 January 2008.]
The first Israeli interest in the F-4 was expressed in 1965, Nordeen 1991, p.90.] but the U.S. was not willing to provide them at that time. However, due to the embargo imposed by France after the Israeli pre-emptive strike during the 1967
Six Day War, the U.S. government reconsidered and decided to offer the Israelis the aircraft.
The first aircraft delivered were F-4Es, which performed well in IDF service. These early F-4Es were provided under the "Peace Echo" program, authorized on
7 January 1968by president Lyndon Johnson, and supported by Senator Robert Kennedy.
Formal acceptance of the first F-4Es came on
5 September 1969, with Golda Meirand Moshe Dayanpresent for the ceremony. By 22 October 1969, the new aircraft were in operation, attacking Egyptian targets. On 11 November 1969 an F-4E first shot down a MiG-21, while on 2 April 1970, the first F-4 was downed by a MiG. Egyptian fighters had a hard time dealing with the F-4s, and their SA-2 Surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) were not effective at low altitudes. To address the problem, SA-3s were shipped to Egypt, along with up to 5,000 soviet advisors. In a fierce aerial battle on 30 July 1970, four Phantoms baited the Egyptian MiGs which this time were Soviet-manned. Up to five MiGs were shot down when eight Israeli Mirages, flying at low level, jumped them, achieving complete surprise. Nordeen 1991, p. 112.] Late June and early July 1970 was a difficult time for the new F-4s, with two shot down by SAMs on 30 June, another one on 5 July and two on 18 July.Foster 1998, p. 25.]
A total of 24 Phantoms were delivered under "Peace Echo II and III". "Operation Night Light" involved the loan of two RF-4Cs to the IDF while they were waiting for their order for six RF-4Es to be delivered. "Operation Peace Patch" involved another batch of 12 Phantoms, delivered in 1971.
Israeli F-4Es scored many aerial victories against Arab aircraft, such as two Su-7s shot down on
9 September 1972and a Libyan Boeing 727in January 1973.
"Peace Echo IV" brought another 52 F-4s to the IDF, 24 of which were ex-USAF. These were delivered between April 1972 and October 1973, when the Yom Kippur War broke out. At that time there were 122 F-4E and 6 RF-4Es in service with the IDF.
Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur Warstarted with Egyptian and Syrian air attacks on Israel. During the opening action a pair of Phantoms managed to shoot down seven Egyptian aircraft and others shot down five Mil Mi-8s carrying assault troops over the Sinaidesert.
On the second day of the war, the IDF launched attacks with F-4s and
A-4 Skyhawks but the enemy air defence and MiGs shot down six Phantoms and 30 A-4s. The new SA-6 Gainfulmissile systems and ZSU-23-4 Shilka mobile guns were much more effective than the old SA-2 Guideline. The SA-6 uses semi-active radar homing, paired with Straight Flush radar which operates in the G,H,I and J bands, making it very difficult to jam. The Israeli ALR-36 radar warning receivers were ineffective against this system. Some aerial manoeuvres were believed to fool the SA-6 systems and these were used while the IDF waited for better ECM weapons. Some of the maneuvers were quite effective, but the SA-6 threat was only reduced when A-4s surprised many SA-6 batteries without their missiles ready to fire and destroyed them on 9 October 1973. That same day another F-4 strike hit the Damascus HQ of the Syrian Army.
By the middle of October 37 Phantoms had been lost in combat; another six were damaged beyond repair. U.S. President
Richard Nixonauthorized the delivery of 36 ex-USAF F-4s under " Operation Nickel Grass", from USAF 4 and 401 TFW. These aircraft were flown directly to Israel, some by US pilots. At least one F-4E flew in combat still bearing a U.S. tail code, while others stayed painted in USAF camouflage patterns. Nordeen 1991, p.137.] [ [http://www.historynet.com/mcdonnell-f-4-phantom-essential-aircraft-in-the-air-warfare-in-the-middle-east.htm/4 McDonnell F-4 Phantom: Essential Aircraft in the Air Warfare in the Middle East, HistoryNet ] ] During the war Israeli Phantoms first used the new AGM-65 Maverickmissile.
Israel employed three F-4E(S), which were equipped with a special high-altitude camera system (HIAC) for reconnaissance missions. [Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jBaugher1/f4_15.html "F-4E(S) Phantom."] Phantom II, December 1999. Retrieved:
30 January 2008.] One was shot down over Cairoat an altitude of 5,200 metres (17,000 ft). These RF-4Es were special high performance Phantoms, with the same cameras planned for the Mach 3.2 RF-4X, which was cancelled in 1975. The camera performed well but mounting it in an external pod caused too much drag, so it was installed in the nose of three normal F-4Es instead.Foster 1998, p. 26.]
During the Yom Kippur War it was reported that one Israeli F-4 Squadron was put on alert for a nuclear strike, but this was never confirmed, as is always the case with Israeli nuclear plans. After several weeks of combat, losses included four F-4s delivered under the Nickel Grass program.
Post 1973 period
After the war "Peace Echo V" provided Israel with 24 new, 24 ex-USAF and 6 RF-4Es, completing the program in November 1976.
Given that almost all the Israeli F-4s had suffered battle damage, an update to increase their capabilities and standardize the various production blocks was commenced in 1974. The IDF Phantoms received Elbit Jason digital bombing computers, Litton LW-33
inertial navigation systems, new radar warning receivers, TISEO and combat slats. [Foster 1998, p. 27.]
IDF Phantoms took part in many other battles, among them the attack on the Bekka Valley in June 1982, when Syrian SA-6 sites were destroyed by a coordinated attack made by IDF aircraft and
unmanned aerial vehicles. By that time, new F-15 Eagles and F-16 Fighting Falcons were replacing the Phantom in first line service, so the F-4s scored only one aerial victory in that action. Nordeen 1991, p. 200.]
Among the weapons carried on IDF F-4s were the Gabriel, AGM-45, AGM-68, Fricker 2000, p.66] Shafir and Python missiles. [ [http://www.iaf.org.il/Templates/Aircraft/Aircraft.IN.aspx?lang=EN&lobbyID=69&folderID=78&docfolderID=184&docID=18176¤tPageNumber=2 McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom - Development] "Israeli Air Force - The Official Website". Retrieved:
29 January 2008.]
The planned program to replace the original J79 engines with the
Pratt & Whitney PW1120was cancelled, but the fleet was updated to Kurnass 2000 standards. This upgrade included installation of a wide-angle Kaiser HUD, a digital mission computer and some structural improvements. The main updates involved the APG-76 radar, Elbit ACE-3 mission computer, HOTAS, the addition of winglets for increased agility, ASX-1 TISEO and the ability to deploy Popeye missiles. The upgraded aircraft first flew on 15 July 1987and was formally accepted on 11 August 1987. The Kurnass program was also used to upgrade Turkish Air Force Phantoms at the same time, realizing some economies of scale.
Israeli Phantoms have suffered at least 55 combat losses but accounted for 116 claimed air victories.Foster 1998, p. 28.]
Israeli Air Force
*No. 69 Squadron "Ha'patishim" (The Hammers) טייסת הפטישים
*No. 105 Squadron "Akrav" (Scorpion) טייסת העקרב
*No. 107 Squadron "Zanov Katom" (Knights of the Orange Tail) אבירי הזנב הכתום
*No. 113 Squadron
*No. 115 Squadron
*No. 119 Squadron "Atalev" (Bat) טייסת העטלף
*No. 201 Squadron "Ahat" (The One) הטייסת האחת
Japan selected the F-4 Phantom II as its new fighter at the end of the 1960s. On
1 November 1968this choice was made public and Japan became one of the few countries that license-produced this aircraft.
The Nihon Koku Jietai (Japan Air Self-Defense Force,
JASDF) received a total of 154 F-4EJ and RF-4Es. While the F-4EJs were built almost entirely by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, the RF-4Es were bought directly from McDonnell-Douglas.
Due to Japanese military limitations prohibiting air-to-ground ordnance, the F-4EJs were delivered without the AN/AJB-7 bombing computer system and also did not have an air-refuelling probe or receptacle. In service F-4EJs replaced the JASDF's fleet of F-104Js.Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jBaugher1/f4_47.html "Phantom with Japan."] Phantom II, February 2000. Retrieved:
13 November 2007.]
McDonnell-Douglas built the two prototype F-4EJs, which first flew on 14 January 1971. The next 11 aircraft were assembled in Japan and the first Japanese-built example flew on 12 May 1972. Mitsubishi built all the EJs over the next nine years and the production ended with 127th F-4EJ, on 20 May 1981. This was the last F-4 built in the World. Fricker 2000, p. 85.]
Fourteen RF-4Es were delivered between November 1974 and June 1975. These were similar to the RF-4C, but, as for the F-EJs, Japanese-built
radar warning receivers and other equipment were substituted to replace equipment which was not released for export to Japan.
The F-4EJ entered service with the JASDF in August 1972 with a total of six Squadrons (Hikotai) operating the aircraft: the 301, 302, 303, 304, 305 and 306th. The RF-4EJ equipped the 501st, that had previously operated one of the less-well-known Sabre models, the RF-86F. Fricker 2000, p. 86.]
Japanese procurement involved small, multi-year orders, which made for slow production of small batches ordered every year. As of 2007, Japan has a fleet of 90 F-4s currently in service. Talks are underway to replace them with
Eurofighter Typhoonaircraft (as reported in the " Financial Times" in March 2007), since the sale of the American F-22 Raptoris currently blocked by U.S. export restrictions. In June 2007, Lockheed Martinannounced that the company has been awarded a contract to equip several F-15 Eagles with synthetic aperture radarpods. These F-15s will be used in a reconnaissance role, allowing the RF-4EJ to be retired; the F-4 having served from the 1970s into the 21st century. [ [http://www.lockheedmartin.com/news/press_releases/2007/LockheedMartinUpgradeRadarForReconn.html "Lockheed Martin to Upgrade Radar for Reconnaissance Version of Japan's F-15"] , Lockheed Martin press release, 19 June 2007.]
To upgrade the Phantom fleet the JASDF planned the F-4EJ Kai (Japanese for "modified") program. This involved 110 aircraft, later reduced to 96, which were upgraded with
APG-66radar, ground attack capabilities and most importantly, ASM-1 or ASM-2 anti-ship missiles (two mounted under the wings). This boosted their capabilities in the anti-shipping role; filling in for the indigenous Mitsubishi F-1s which were too few in number and lacked range, and the P-3Cs which were too slow, even if well-armed with Harpoon missiles. The F-4EJ Kai upgrade added several other air-to-surface weapons to the F-4, including bombs and rockets.
RF-4Es were upgraded to RF-4 Kai standard with AN/APQ-172 TFR radar, and the J/APR-2
RWRwas replaced with the J/APR-5; both Japanese-designed systems. Seventeen F-4EJs were also converted to RF-4EJ configuration, which, while mounting no internal cameras, carried podded reconnaissance equipment. Among the systems installed were TACER (electronic reconnaissance pod with datalink), TAC (pod with KS-135A and KS-95B cameras), D-500UR IR detection system, and the LOROP pod (with a KS-146B camera).Fricker 2000, p. 69.]
The first F-4EJ Kai aircraft were delivered to the 306 Hikotai at Komatsu, but within a few years they were replaced by F-15Js. In April 1994 the F-4 strength was reduced to three squadrons: 8 (
Misawa), 301 (Nyutabaru) and 306 (Naha, Okinawa). The 501st at that time operated the RF-4EJ. Over time the F-4s and F-1s are being replaced with the new Mitsubishi F-2, an enlarged development of the F-16 developed jointly with Lockheed Martin.
Japan Air Self-Defense Force
The Hankook Kong Gon (
Republic of Korea Air Force, RoKAF) is one of the lesser known F-4 users. South Korea was supplied with F-4s in the late 1960s, due to ongoing tension with North Korea.
Seoul ordered 18 ex-
USAFF-4Ds, which were quickly delivered under the "Peace Spectator" program. They served with the 110th TFS, llth Fighter Wing based at Taegu. In 1972 another 18 were delivered from the USAF 3rd TFW (Tactical Fighter Wing), in exchange for which South Korea delivered 36 F-5As to South Vietnam. Several more F-4s were delivered in the following years, with the last batch delivered in 1987–88. These were equipped with Pave Tack laser designators, an important feature that allowed the use of Laser Guided Bombs.Fricker 2000, p. 70.]
A total of 92 F-4Ds were delivered, making this air force the main export costumer for the "D" model. The F-4Ds were joined by 37 new-build F-4Es, ordered in the 1970s. The last of these was the 5,068th F-4 built in
St. Louis. Under the "Operation Peace Pheasant" these were delivered to the RoKaF 152 and 153 TFS, 17th TFW at Chongju. This was only the beginning of South Korean F-4 acquisitions, as more ex-USAF F-4Es were delivered in the next few years, giving a total of 103 F-4Es.Fricker 2000, p. 87.]
The South Koreans also received RF-4Cs. There were 12 ex-USAF 460 TRG (disbanded in 1990) that were sent to the South Korean 131st TRS, 39 TRG, at Suwon airbase, along with another 11 sent later. ALQ-131
electronic countermeasurespods were also delivered.Donald and Lake 1996, p. 270.]
Overall, South Korea was one of the main customers of the F-4, with 216 delivered, including 60 "D" models, 55 "E" models and 18 RF-4Cs in service in 2000. [Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jBaugher1/f4_48.html "Phantom with South Korea."] Phantom II, April 2000. Retrieved:
13 November 2007.]
South Korean Units that have flown the F-4 were:
* 11th Tactical Fighter Wing, based at Taegu, F-4D: 110th and 151th Tactical Fighter Squadron
* 17th Tactical Fighter Wing, Chongju, F-4E: 152nd and 153rd Tactical Fighter Squadron
* 39th Tactical Reconnaissance Group, RF-4C: 131st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron
The South Korean Air Force has been quite satisfied with the F-4 and has carried out upgrades to extend their lifespan. A proposal made by DASA was evaluated that would have included installation of the
APG-66radar and AMRAAMmissiles. This was equivalent to the Japanese F-4EJ KAI or German F-4 ICE, but the costs were too high for South Korea. The Air Force had already been forced to cancel an order for F-18s, which had been the winner of their new fighter competition and instead bought F-16s.
Despite the financial constraints, several minor upgrades were made to allow South Korean F-4s to continue in their role against
North Korea. Some F-4s were upgraded with the AN/AVQ-26 Pave Tacklaser targeting pod. Thirty F-4Es were equipped with the AGM-142 "Popeye" stand-off anti-shipping missile; a modern Israeli weapon also purchased by the USAF, Royal Australian Air Force and the Turkish Air Force.
Republic of Korea Air Force
10th Tactical Fighter Wing
11th Tactical Fighter Wing
17th Tactical Fighter Wing
Through the Mutual Defense Aid Program (MDAP),
Spainacquired 36 ex- USAFF-4Cs for the Ejercito del Aire. These were the only "C" models ever exported, even as second-hand examples.Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jBaugher1/f4_49.html "Phantom with Spain."] Phantom II, April 2000. Retrieved: 30 January 2008.] ] Phantom II, December 2002. Retrieved: 30 January 2008.]
Deliveries occurred between October 1971 and September 1972 under "Peace Alfa". At the time of delivery these F-4Cs were already obsolete, but they replaced even older aircraft, F-104Gs and F-86Fs. Cruz 2004, p.29.]
In Spanish Air Force use the F-4Cs were designated "C.12" (C stood for "Caza" and 12 stood for "12th fighter type in service since the creation of the Ejercito del Aire"). The F-4Cs were assigned to Escuadrones 121 and 122, Ala 12 (Wing). To support them a fleet of three KC-97Ls was acquired in 1972, equipping Escuadrone 123, being replaced by KC-130Hs (which equipped Escuadrone 301) from January 1976. While the KC-97s were fitted with a Flying Boom refuelling system, the Hercules that replaced thaem were fitted with the probe and drouge system and so could not refuel the F-4s. Cruz 2004, p.30.]
Further F-4 deliveries took place in October 1978, with the addition of four F-4Cs and four RF-4Cs. The RF-4Cs were given the Spanish designation CR.12.Donald and Lake 1996]
During their service, seven Spanish Phantoms were lost to accidents before being replaced by EF-18s in April 1989. The RF-4Cs continue to serve in the reconnaissance role along with another eight ex-USAF aircraft delivered in 1989. 123 Squadron operated the RF-4Cs from Torrejon airbase. Fricker 2000, p. 76.]
This batch of RF-4Cs had been updated to the highest USAF standard prior to delivery and had a completely revised avionic suite, including new radios,
RWR, VOR and ILS navigation equipment and KS-86 cameras. These aircraft also had J79-GE-15E "smokeless" engines. Cruz 2004, p.39.]
In 1995 the older F-4s were retired and six more RF-4Cs were obtained. The new RF-4Cs had even newer
avionics, including: Have Quick digital UHF/VHF radios, ItekAN/ARL-46 RWR, and Tracor AN/ALE-40 dispensers. The upgrades included provisions for up to four AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles, for self defence and even for the interceptor role. The existing fleet underwent a standardization program which among other changes included replacing the APQ-99 terrain-following radar by a Texas Instruments AN/APQ-172 radar, laser-ring gyro inertial navigation systemand an Israeli Aircraft Industriesin-flight refuelling probe, while the original USAF-style refuelling receptacle was retained.
These improvements allowed the small Spanish RF-4C fleet to serve for several years into the 21st century, finally being retired in 2002. [ [http://www.ejercitodelaire.mde.es/WebEA/static/ServContenidos?id=06903172BDAEB4E8C12570D70046523A&plantilla=generica "Ejército del Aire: McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II" (in Spanish)] Retrieved:
17 November 2007.] [ [http://www.scramble.nl/es.htm "Spanish Air Force Order of Battle."] "Scramble on the Web". Retrieved: 17 November 2007.] Cruz 2004, p.41.]
One of the most prominent Phantom users is the Türk Hava Kuvvetleri (
Turkish Air Forceor THK), which operates about 233 F-4s.
Under the "Peace Diamond III" program 40 F-4Es were delivered in August 1974, equipping 161 Filo (Squadron.) at 6 Ana Jet Us (Jet-aircraft air Base, also called JAB). After re-equipping with F-16Cs these Phantoms were sent to 7 JAB for 171 and 172 Filo. Filo 173 at the same base was the Operational Conversion Unit.
"Peace Diamond III" was an additional phase of the plan to reinforce the THK, always striving to keep a balance with the Greek
Hellenic Air Force, because even though both are NATO countries, Greece and Turkey are historical enemies and there have been air clashes over the Aegean Seabetween them. Filo 111, 112, 113, all based on JAB 1, Eskisheir, were the new Phantom units. The 111th and 112th Filo received 32 F-4Es replacing their aging F-100s. The 113 Filo replaced their even older RF-84Fs with eight RF-4Es.Fact|date=November 2007
With this last batch of F-4s and plans to acquire F-16s, the THK was quickly being modernized. Before these aircraft arrived the THK had operated fighters such as the
F-104 Starfighter, F-100 Super Sabre, F-84 Thunderflashand the F-86 Sabre, plus the economical F-5 Freedom Fighter. With 80 Phantoms on order, the strength of the THK was increased to new levels. Other fighters, seen as supplemental to the F-4E, were purchased as well. These included 40 Aeritalia F-104Ss, the improved Starfighter, with the same missiles and engines as used on the Phantoms. These equipped Filo 142 and 172. Compared to the F-4s they were considerably less expensive and were used as interceptors. The Turkish F-4 fleet was enhanced with 15 ex-USAF aircraft delivered in 1981 to Filo 173 and finally, another 15 delivered in 1984 to replace fleet losses.Fact|date=November 2007
"Peace Diamond IV" was another program to reinforce the THK and was carried out between June-October 1987. Under this program 40 F-4Es were delivered to 131 and 132 Filo, 3 JAB, Konya. Before that, this wing was only a training unit equipped with the last Turkish F-100s. After the conversion it became an operational formation.
Turkey assisted in
Desert Stormwithout entering the fighting directly, by opening their airbases to the Coalition air forces and hosted Belgian Mirages, German Alpha Jets and Italian F-104Gs. As a reward for their help another 40 ex-USAF Phantoms were delivered to 112 and 172 Filo, beginning on 25 March 1991. At that time, the USAF was phasing-out large quantities of older aircraft, reducing their strength by over 1,000 F-4C/D/Es. But even if old, these aircraft were desirable to countries like Turkey who already had F-4 fleets.Fact|date=November 2007
The U.S. did not have enough RF-4s to sell to meet international demands, so when the
Luftwaffephased out their remaining 88 RF-4Es during 1992–93, 32 were delivered to the THK in 1992–94. All of these went to 113 Filo, Eskişehir. Later when 173 Filo passed their F-4Es to 172 Filo, they equipped with RF-4Es. By the end of that reorganization Filo 171 became a ground attack unit, 172 interception and 173 reconnaissance. That delivery completed the THK F-4 fleet.
Many of the Turkish Phantoms are used as ground attack aircraft, a role they fit well due to the systems installed, especially the ex-USAF aircraft. The first Phantoms delivered to the THK had Vietnam-colours and TISEO equipment, consisting of one camera with zoom for enemy aircraft visual identification outside of normal optical range. The F-4s acquired from USAF stocks were ex-110 TFS and 141 TFS (Both ANG squadrons) and arrived painted in "Egyptian one" camouflage, consisting of two different shades of blue. Despite the air superiority paint scheme, they are best suited for ground attack. The last batch delivered had AVQ-23A Pave Spike laser designation pods. [Rollino, Paolo. "I caccia della Mezzaluna." (in Italian) "Aerei", Issue 6, 1995.]
Buying a more sophisticated supersonic fighter, like the
F-15 Eagleor Panavia Tornado, was too expensive and instead, the THK decided to upgrade its Phantom fleet with improvements to avionics and structure, but not to the engines. In August 1995, after a hotly contested competition with DASA (F-4 ICE), IAI was awarded a USD600M contract to upgrade 54 F-4Es to Phantom 2000s. The first 26 aircraft were rebuilt in Israel, and the other 28 in Turkey.Baugher, Joseph F. [http://home.att.net/~jBaugher1/f4_46.html "Phantom for Turkey."] Phantom II, May 2000. Retrieved: 30 January 2008.]
Small strakes above the air intakes to improve agility, new attachment fittings, engine mountings, stronger wing fold ribs, updated canopy sill bar, 20 km of wiring replaced (reducing weight by 750 kg) as well as most hydraulic and pneumatic lines and hoses, and fuel tank reinforcements. [http://warriorsoul.4t.com/airforce.html F-4 Phantom on the "warriorsoul" "Turkish Armed Forces" website] Retrieved:
8 February 2008]
New MFD (multifunction display) in the front cockpit plus two in the rear, new Kaiser El-OP 976 wide-angle HUD and
HOTASsystem, high performance Elta ELO/M-2032 ISAR-capable high-resolution SAR/GMTI (ground moving target indicator) multi-mode fire control radar (developed for the IAI Lavi), IAIC mission computer, new navigation equipment including GPS/INS connected to mapping mode, dual MIL-STD-553B databus managing avionics package, Astronautics Central Air Data Computer, new UHF and IFF packages, airborne video tape recorder (AVTR), Elta EL/L-8222 active ECM pod and Mikes (Aselsan) AN/ALQ-178V3 passive embedded SPEWS, and RWR.
Additionally they had AGM-142 Popeye/Have Nap integration, Litening-II targeting pods, and the capability to launch AGM-65D/G Maverick,
AGM-88 HARM, GBU-8 HOBOS, GBU-10/12 Paveway II LGBs, general purpose and cluster bombs for air-to-ground missions, while retaining the capability to launch AIM-7 Sparrowand AIM-9 Sidewinderair-to-air missiles. It is also possible to install Pave Spiketargeting pods and rocket pods of all sizes.
These upgraded F-4 Phantoms are referred to as the F-4E-2020 Terminator. They will be in service until at least 2015 and perhaps longer. The first entered service on
27 January 2000with deliveries to 111 and 171 Filo.
Turkish Air Force
* Ana Jet Üs (Jet Air Base), Eskişehir: 111 Filo 'Panter' (F-4E/2020), 112 Filo 'Şeytan' (F-4E), 113 Filo 'Işık' (RF-4E)
* Ana Jet Üs (Jet Air Base), Konya: 132 Filo 'Hançer' (F-4E/2020)
* Ana Jet Üs (Jet Air Base), Erhaç-Malatya: 171 Filo 'Korsan' (F-4E/2020), 172 Filo 'Şahin' (F-4E), 173 Filo 'Şafak' (F-4E)
1st Tactical Air Force
2nd Tactical Air Force
F-4K (Phantom FG.1)
Following cancellation of the
Hawker Siddeley P.1154, the Royal Navyselected the Phantom as a replacement for the Supermarine Scimitarand de Havilland Sea Vixen. The model requested was designated the F-4K by McDonnell Douglas and Phantom FG.1 by the British. Ordered in July 1964,Thetford 1994, pp. 254–255.] this was the first time the U.S. permitted export of the Phantom, with the first F-4K flying on 27 June 1966.
To ease the impact on employment in the UK aircraft industry from the cancellation of home-grown programs, the aircraft had a high British content. The main modification was the replacement of the
General Electric J79by the British-made Rolls-Royce Speypowerplant."Take Off Encyclopedia." London: Eaglemoss Publications Ltd., 2000, pp. 248–250.] These engines (RB 168-25R Spey Mk 202/203s) were more powerful than the J79s (20,515 lbf / 91.25 kN afterburning thrust) and had a lower fuel consumption (SFC around 0.7 lb/hp.h). The rear fuselage was heavily modified to accommodate the larger Speys, while the air intakes were enlarged to accommodate the greater airflow they required. These aircraft were equipped with an AN/AWG-11 radar system, which was a licence-built version of the AN/AWG-10 by Ferranti, [http://www.thunder-and-lightnings.co.uk/phantom/history.html "McDonnell Douglas Phantom II: History."] Thunder & Lightnings, 29 February 2004. Retrieved: 13 November 2007.] Donald 1999, p. 5.] equipped with a Dopplerunit to allow some basic look-down capabilities. The bombing system was the anglicized version of the Lear/Siegler AN/ABJ-7. Fleet Air ArmPhantoms were fitted with a double-telescoping front landing gear strut that could extend 40 inches (102 cm), the increased angle of attackbeing necessary for catapult launches from the smaller British carrier HMS "Ark Royal". Other British contractors, including Short Brothersand British Aircraft Corporation, built sub-assemblies and supplied parts to the United States where the aircraft were manufactured by McDonnell Douglas at Saint Louis.
A Spey-powered Phantom was not a new concept: McDonnell Douglas had considered the idea to meet the USAF TFX requirement, later satisfied by the
General Dynamics F-111. The Spey gave an increase of 10% in operational range, 15% increase in ferry range and better low-level acceleration, however the increased drag of the engine installation resulted in poorer performance at high altitude. Although some of the design changes were unique to the British aircraft – folding radar radome, Spey engine, nose-wheel extension and strengthened arrester hook – the other structural changes and improvements were used in the design of the F-4J. After modifications in the 1970s, the tail had a new RWRsystem; a British-made Marconi ARI.18228 fitted in a rectangular antenna box on the fin tip.
The Fleet Air Arm order was repeatedly cut as the Royal Navy's carrier force was run down, with the original order for 140 FG.1s being eventually reduced to 48, 20 being diverted to the
Royal Air Force. The units equipped were 700P Naval Air Squadron trials unit, 767 Naval Air Squadrontraining unit, and a single operational squadron, 892 Naval Air Squadron, all home based at Yeovilton.
FG.1s were delivered directly to the RAF in 1969 to equip 43 Squadron at
RAF Leucharsin the air-defence role.Donald 1999, p. 6.] These aircraft were modified to enable them to carry the SUU-23/A gun pods.
Service with the Fleet Air Arm was brief. "Ark Royal" was the only carrier equipped with Phantom FG.1s, from
12 June 1970, to 27 November 1978. After that, the remaining FG.1s were transferred to the RAF to form 111 Squadron, a second air-defence squadron. The two RAF squadrons converted to the Tornado F.3 in 1989 and the FG.1s were withdrawn from service.Donald 1999, p. 20.]
F-4M (Phantom FGR.2)
With the cancellation of home-grown programmes and the need to replace the
Hawker Hunterand English Electric Canberrain the ground-attack and tactical reconnaissance roles, the RAF ordered 118 aircraft in 1965. The aircraft were designated Phantom FGR.2 by the British and the prototype first flew on 17 February 1967. Like the Phantom FG.1 it was equipped with Spey engines and was externally identical, although it did not have the extendable nose-wheel. It was fitted with an AN/AWG-12 radar and fire control system and Martin-BakerMark H5 ejection seats. The aircraft entered service from 1969 onwards with 2, 14, 17, 29 , 31, 41 and 54 Sqns in the close air support, tactical strike and tactical reconnaissance roles. However, when the SEPECAT Jaguarentered service from 1974 on, the Phantom FGR.2s were redeployed in the air defence role, replacing BAC Lightnings.
Some FGR.2s were equipped with dual-controls and others could carry a reconnaissance pod. The reconnaissance pod was equipped with a
Texas InstrumentsRS-700 infrared linescan unit, high-definition sideways-looking radar and five optical cameras. Although not deployed in a war role RAF Phantoms were involved in Air Defence Duties on Quick Reaction Alert. This involved endless alarms to intercept "Bear" and other Soviet aircraft approaching British airspace, the North Seaand over Germany. RWRs and structural reinforcements were carried out to the aircraft in the 1970s. In 1982, an AIM-9-armed Phantom FGR.2 returning from a Quick Reaction Alert over Germany accidentally shot down a Royal Air Force Jaguar GR.1.
In the strike role the FGR.2s could carry the
SNEBrocket pod, 1,000 pound (454 kg) bomb, the BL755CBU ( Cluster BombUnit), and American-supplied B28, B43, B57 or B61 nuclear weapons. It could also be fitted with SUU-16/A and SUU-23/A gun pods. From 1975 the aircraft were modified with structural reinforcements and tail-mounted Radar Warning Receivers. When the aircraft took over the air-defence duties in the 1970s they carried either AIM-9G Sidewinders or AIM-7 Sparrows and later they would carry the then new BAe Skyflashmissile and the updated AIM-9L Sidewinder. In the 1980s, the Tornado started to replace the Phantom in the air-defence role.
When a flight of Phantom FGR.2s were sent to the Falklands Islands, after the 1982
Falklands War, the RAFhad a need for more interceptors. With no other aircraft available the RAF bought 15 former U.S. Navy F-4J aircraft; chosen from among the best stored at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, and were upgraded to a level almost equal to the F-4S and redesignated F-4J(UK). There was no official UK mark number for the type, despite the common but incorrect assumption that they would be designated "Phantom F.3" in RAF service. The main difference was the absence of combat slatsas requested by the RAF, since they were considered to be a "source of drag".
This also simplified the training of RAF crews, as slats were not fitted to other RAF Phantoms. The aircraft were totally overhauled at
Naval Air Station North Islandand fitted with AWG-10B radar (having Skyflash missile guidance capability, with monopulse I band sensor), smokeless engines and provision for Skyflash missiles. The first F-4J(UK) was delivered to the RAF on 2 August 1984 and from there RAF crews delivered the aircraft to the UK after training.Calvert 1991, p. 23.]
They entered service with
No. 74 Squadron RAF("Tiger Squadron"), based at RAF Wattishamin the air-defence role. Crews liked the aircraft, and generally rated them better than the Spey-equipped FGR.2s. They had a slower rate of climb due to the less powerful engines, but they were also 1,670 pounds (760 kg) lighter and able, at altitude, to reach higher speeds (Mach 2.3 at 45,000 feet [13,700 m] compared to Mach 2.1 at 36,000 feet [11,000 m] ). Also the radar was praised: "engines are good and the radar is excellent" in the words of a pilot. Despite their age and the lack of combat slats these aircraft served well until being phased out from 1990 onwards in favour of surplus Phantom FGR.2s, before the Phantom was finally retired in 1992.
After 25 years of service the Phantoms ended their RAF career: as a result of the
Options for Changemilitary budget reduction in 1990, it was decided to phase out the Phantom. These aircraft were designed for a lifetime of only 1,000 hours but were pushed to 5,800 hours, many of them flown at low-level. First units to disband were the RAF Wildenrath-based 19 and 92 Squadrons followed by 56 Squadron in May 1992. The last Phantom squadron, 74 Squadron was disbanded on 1 October 1992.
The Greece Air Force (Polemiki Aeroporia, PA) was interested in buying 32 aircraft in 1992 but the differences were too great between the FGR.2 and the F-4Es they operate. [Calvert 1991, p. 25.]
Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm
*700P Squadron FAA
*767 Squadron FAA
*892 Squadron FAA
*Phantom Post-Operational Conversion Unit
Royal Air Force
No. 2 Squadron RAF
No. 6 Squadron RAF
No. 14 Squadron RAF
No. 17 Squadron RAF
No. 19 Squadron RAF
No. 23 Squadron RAF
No. 29 Squadron RAF
No. 31 Squadron RAF
No. 41 Squadron RAF
No. 43 Squadron RAF
No. 54 Squadron RAF
No. 56 Squadron RAF
No. 64 Squadron RAF/ No. 228 Operational Conversion Unit RAF
No. 74 Squadron RAF
No. 92 Squadron RAF
No. 111 Squadron RAF
No. 1435 Flight RAF
*Phantom Training Flight
*Phantom Conversion Flight
Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment
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* Donald, David and Lake Jon, eds. "McDonnell F-4 Phantom: Spirit in the Skies". London: AIRtime Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-880588-31-5.
* List, Friedrich. "German Air Arms Review". "Air International" Volume 70, No. 5, May 2006. Stamford, Linconshire, UK: Key Publishing, pp. 50–57. ISSN 0306-5634.
* Mazzardi, Pietro and Maffioli, G. "Il cavallino rampante della Westfalia (JG 72)." (in Italian) "Aerei", Issue 2, 1993.
* Niccoli, Riccardo and Sacchetti, R. "Phantom II." (in Italian) "Fantasmi Crociati", JP-4, Issue 2, 1991.
* Nordeen, Lon, "Fighters Over Israel". London: Guild Publishing, 1991. ISBN 1-85367-098-7.
* Rollino, Paolo. "Phantoms in Tanagra." (in Italian) "Aerei", Issue 10, 1992.
* Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912". London: Putnam, Fourth Edition, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
* Thornborough, Anthony M. and Davies, Peter E. "The Phantom Story". London: Arms and Armour Press, 1994. ISBN 1-85409-121-2.
* [http://www.f4phantom2.de/index.php?id=39 Phantom ICE in Germany]
* [http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fighter/f4ejkai.html F-4EJ Kai in airwar.ru]
* [http://home.att.net/~jbaugher1/f4.html Baughers Index of Phantom Operators and Variants]
F-4 Phantom II
F-4 Phantom II variants
F-4 Phantom II U.S. operators
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