Air-to-surface missile


Air-to-surface missile

An air-to-surface missile (also, air-to-ground missile, AGM, ASM or ATGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft (bombers, attack aircraft, fighter aircraft or other kinds) and strike ground targets on land, at sea, or both. They are similar to guided glide bombs but to be considered a missile, they usually contain some form of propulsion system. The two most common propulsion systems for air-to-surface missiles are rocket motors and jet engines. These also tend to correspond to the range of the missiles - short and long, respectively. Some Soviet air-to-surface missiles are powered by ramjets, giving them both long range and high speed.

Guidance for air-to-surface missiles is typically via laser guidance, infrared guidance, optical guidance or via GPS signals. The type of guidance depends on the type of target. Ships, for example, may be detected via passive or active radar, while this wouldn't work very well against land targets which typically don't contain such a large mass of metal surrounded by empty space.

There is some cross-over between air-to-surface missiles and surface-to-surface missiles. For example, there was an air-launched version of the Tomahawk missile, although this has been superseded by the AGM-86 ALCM. Other missiles used in both roles include the Penguin anti-ship missile and AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile. Many air-to-surface missiles can be used against both ships and land targets, although some of them have to be modified to perform both roles effectively. For example, the Standoff Land Attack Missile is a land-attack version of the Harpoon.

One of the major advantages of air-to-surface missiles over other weapons available for aircraft to use to attack ground targets is the standoff distance they provide. This allows them to launch the weapons outside the most intense air defences around the target site. Most air-to-surface missiles are fire-and-forget in order to take most advantage of the standoff distance - they allow the launching platform to turn away after launch. Some missiles have enough range to be launched over the horizon. These missiles (typically either cruise or anti-ship missiles) need to be able to find and home in on the target autonomously.

Sub-categories of air-to-surface missiles include:
*air-launched anti-tank guided missiles (typically launched from helicopters)
*air-launched cruise missiles
*air-launched anti-ship missiles
*anti-radiation missiles

Typically, the higher and faster the launching aircraft is flying, the further away the missile's target can be. For long range missiles this difference can be small, but short range missiles (like the AGM-65 Maverick) often dramatically increase in range when launched at altitude.

There have been examples of air-launched ballistic missiles, but they are rare. Sometimes air-to-surface missiles are divided into the categories of "tactical" and "strategic". Typically this indicates conventional explosive or small nuclear warhead (tactical) and large nuclear warhead (strategic).

List of air-to-surface missiles

Argentina

*MP-1000 Martín Pescador
*AS-25K

Australia

*See USA (below)

France

*MBDA AS 30
*MBDA Apache
*MBDA Exocet
*Storm Shadow

Germany

*Taurus KEPD 350
*AGM Armiger
*PARS-3
*Euromissile HOT
*AS.34 Kormoran
*RBS 15 (in cooperation with Sweden)

India

*BrahMos
* Nag

Iran

*Qased

Norway

*Penguin missile
*Joint Strike Missile

Pakistan

*H2 Missile
*H4 Missile
*Baktar-Shikan
*Babur missile
*Hafr
*Ra'ad

outh Africa

*Mokopa

weden

*Rb 05
*RBS 15

Turkey

*Cirit
*UMTAS

UK

*Blue Steel missile
*Brimstone missile
*Green Cheese missile (canceled in 1956)
*AGM-48 Skybolt (canceled)
*ALARM
*Storm Shadow

USA

*AGM-12 Bullpup
*AGM-22
*AGM-28 Hound Dog
*AGM-45 Shrike
*AGM-48 Skybolt
*AGM-53 Condor
*AGM-62 Walleye
*AGM-63
*AGM-64 Hornet
*AGM-65 Maverick
*AGM-69 SRAM
*AGM-76 Falcon
*AGM-78 Standard ARM
*AGM-79 Blue Eye
*AGM-80 Viper
*AGM-83 Bulldog
*AGM-84 Harpoon
*AGM-86 CALCM
*AGM-87 Focus
*AGM-88 HARM
*AGM-112
*AGM-114 Hellfire
*AGM-122 Sidearm
*AGM-123 Skipper
*AGM-124 Wasp
*AGM-129 ACM
*AGM-130
*AGM-131 SRAM II
*AGM-136 Tacit Rainbow
*AGM-137 TSSAM
*AGM-142 Have Nap
*AGM-153
*AGM-154 JSOW
*AGM-158 JASSM
*AGM-159 JASSM

USSR/Russia

*AS-1 'Kennel' (KS-1 "Kometa")
*AS-2 'Kipper' (K-10S "Yen")
*AS-3 'Kangaroo' (H-20)
*AS-4 'Kitchen' (H-22 Burya)
*AS-5 'Kelt' (H-11/KSR-2)
*AS-6 'Kingfish' (H-26/KSR-5)
*AS-7 'Kerry' (H-66, H-23 "Grom")
*AS-8 (9M114V "Sturm-V")
*AS-9 'Kyle' (H-28)
*AS-10 'Karen' (H-25)
*AS-11 'Kilter' (H-58 "Izdeliye")
*AS-12 'Kegler' (H-25MP, H-27PS)
*AS-13 'Kingbolt' (H-59 "Ovod")
*AS-14 'Kedge' (H-29)
*AS-15 'Kent' (H-55/H-65S "Izdeliye")
*AS-16 'Kickback' (H-15)
*AS-17 'Krypton' (H-31)
*AS-18 Kazoo (H-59M "Ovod-M")
*AS-19 'Koala' (P-750 "Grom")
*AS-X-19 'Koala' (3M25A "Meteorit-A")
*AS-20 'Kayak' (H-35/H-37 "Uran")
*AS-X-21 (Kh-90 "Gela")

See also

* Laser-guided bomb
* Anti-tank guided missile
* Anti-ship missile
* Cruise missile
* Anti-radiation missile


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • air-to-surface missile — /ɛə tə ˈsɜfəs mɪsaɪl/ (say air tuh serfuhs misuyl) noun a missile, usually guided, designed to be fired from an aircraft at a target on the ground. Also, air to ground missile …   Australian English dictionary

  • air-to-surface missile — noun a missile designed to be launched from an airplane at a target on the ground (Freq. 1) • Syn: ↑air to ground missile • Hypernyms: ↑missile …   Useful english dictionary

  • Precision Attack Air-to-Surface Missile — The Precision Attack Air to Surface Missile (PAASM) is a weapon system currently under development by Raytheon which is designed to defeat armored vehicles, buildings, hardened bunkers and small naval targets.[1] The missile uses technology… …   Wikipedia

  • air-to-ground missile — noun a missile designed to be launched from an airplane at a target on the ground • Syn: ↑air to surface missile • Hypernyms: ↑missile …   Useful english dictionary

  • air-to-ground missile — Missile Mis sile, n. [L. missile.] 1. A weapon thrown or projected or intended to be projected, as a lance, an arrow, or a bullet. [1913 Webster] 2. A rocket propelled device designed to fly through the air and deliver a warhead of explosive… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • air-to-surface guided missile — valdomoji raketa „oras žemė“ statusas T sritis Gynyba apibrėžtis Ore paleidžiama valdomoji raketa antžeminiams taikiniams naikinti. atitikmenys: angl. air to surface guided missile pranc. missile air surface …   NATO terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • air-to-surface guided missile — An air launched guided missile for use against surface targets. See also guided missile …   Military dictionary

  • air-to-surface guided missile — An air launched guided missile for use against surface targets …   Aviation dictionary

  • air-to-surface guided missile — valdomoji raketa „oras–žemė“ statusas T sritis Gynyba apibrėžtis Valdomoji raketa, leidžiama iš orlaivio, antžeminiams taikiniams naikinti. atitikmenys: angl. air to surface guided missile rus. управляемая ракета класса „воздух земля“ …   Artilerijos terminų žodynas

  • air-to-surface guided missile — valdomoji raketa „oras–žemė“ statusas T sritis apsauga nuo naikinimo priemonių apibrėžtis Valdoma raketa, leidžiama iš orlaivio, antžeminiams taikiniams naikinti. atitikmenys: angl. air to surface guided missile rus. управляемая ракета класса… …   Apsaugos nuo naikinimo priemonių enciklopedinis žodynas