- Electroacoustic phenomena
Electroacoustic phenomena arises when
ultrasoundpropagates through a fluidcontaining ions. It moves these ions. This motion generates electricsignals because ions have electric charge. This coupling between ultrasound and electric fieldis called electroacoustic phenomena. Fluid might be a simple Newtonian liquid, or complex heterogeneous dispersion, emulsionor even a porous body. There are several different electroacoustic effects depending on the nature of the fluid.
Ion Vibration Current/Potential(IVI), an electricsignal that arises when an acoustic wavepropagates through a homogeneousfluid.
Streaming Vibration Current/Potential(SVI), an electric signal that arises when an acoustic wave propagates through a porous body in which the pores are filled with fluid.
Colloid Vibration Current/Potential (CVI), an electric signal that arises when ultrasound propagates through a heterogeneousfluid, such as a dispersionor emulsion.
Electric Sonic Amplitude(ESA), the inverse of CVI effect, in which an acoustic field arises when an electric fieldpropagates through a heterogeneousfluids.
Ion Vibration Current
Historically, the IVI is the first known electroacoustic effect. It was predicted by Debye in 1933 [Debye.P."A method for the determination of the mass of electrolyte ions"J. Chem. Phys., 1,13-16,1933] . He pointed out that the difference in the effective mass or friction coefficient between
anionand cationwould result in different displacement amplitudes in a longitudinalwave. This difference creates an alternating electric potential between various points in sound wave. This effect was extensively used in 1950’s and 1960’s for characterizing ion solvation. These works are mostly associated with names of Zana and Yaeger, who published a review of their studies in 1982 [Zana.R. and Yeager. E. "Ultrasonic Vibration Potentials" Mod.Aspects of Electrochemistry, 14, 3-60, 1982] .
treaming Vibration Current
Streaming Vibration Current was experimentally observed in 1948 by Williams [Williams.M. " An Electrokinetic Transducer" The review of scientific instruments, 19, 10, 640-646, 1948] . A theoretical model was developed some 30 years later by Dukhin and others [Dukhin, S.S., Mischuk, N.A., Kuz’menko, B.B and Il’in, B.I. "Flow current and potential in a high-frequency acoustic field" Colloid J., 45, 5, 875-881,1983] . This effect opens another possibility for characterizing the electric properties of the surfaces in porous bodies. A similar effect can be observed at a non-porous surface, when sound is bounced off at an oblique angle. The incident and reflected waves superimpose to cause oscillatory fluid motion in the plane of the interface, thereby generating an AC streaming current at the frequency of the sound waves [Glauser, A.R., Robertson P.A., Lowe, C.R., "An electrokinetic sensor for studying immersed surfaces, using focused ultrasound" Sensors Actuators B, 80, 1, 68-82, 2001] .
Double Layer Compression
double layercan be regarded as behaving like a parallel plate capacitor with a compressible dielectric filling. When sound waves induce a local pressure variation, the spacing of the plates varies at the frequency of the excitation, generating an AC displacement current normal to the interface. For practical reasons this is most readily observed at a conducting surface [F.I. Kukoz, L.A. Kukoz, "The nature of audioelectro-chemical phenomena" Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 36 (1962) pp. 367-369] . It is therefore possible to use an electrode immersed in a conducting electrolyte as a microphone, or indeed as a loudspeaker when the effect is applied in reverse [N. Tankovsky, "Capacitive ultrasound transducer, based on the electrical double layer in electrolytes" J. App. Phys. 87 (2000) pp. 538-542] .
Colloid Vibration Potential / Current
Colloid Vibration Potential/Current was first reported by Hermans and then independently by Rutgers in 1938. It is widely used for characterizing the ζ-potential of various dispersions and emulsions. The effect, theory, experimental verification and multiple applications are discussed in the book by Dukhin and Goetz. [cite book |last=Dukhin |first=A.S. |authorlink= |coauthors=Goetz, P.J. |editor= |others= |title=Ultrasound for Characterizing Colloids |origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate=2007-10-03 |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year=2002 |month= |publisher=Elsevier |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=153 |chapter=Electroacoustic Theory |chapterurl=http://www.dispersion.com/pages/theory/electroacoustictheory/electoracoustictheory.html |quote= |ref= ]
Electric Sonic Amplitude was experimentally discovered by Cannon with co-authors in early 1980’s. [Oja, T., Petersen, G., and Cannon, D. “Measurement of Electric-Kinetic Properties of a Solution”, US Patent 4,497,208,1985] It is also widely used for characterizing ζ-potential in dispersions and emulsions. There is review of this effect theory, experimental verification and multiple applications published by Hunter. [Hunter, R.J. “Review. Recent developments in the electroacoustic characterization of colloidal suspensions and emulsions”, Colloids and Surfaces, 141, 37-65, 1998]
Theory of CVI and ESA
With regard to the theory of CVI and ESA, there was important observation made by O’Brien, [O’Brien, R.W. "Electro-acoustic effects in a dilute suspension of spherical particles" J. Fluid Mech., 190, 71-86,1988] who linked these measured parameters with
dynamic electrophoretic mobilityμd.
where: A is calibration constant, depending on frequency, but not particles properties;: ρ"p" is particle density,: ρ"m" density of the fluid,: φ is volume fraction of dispersed phase,
Dynamic electrophoretic mobility is similar to
electrophoretic mobilitythat appears in electrophoresistheory. They are identical at low frequencies and/or for sufficiently small particles.
There are several theories of the dynamic electrophoretic mobility. Their overview is given in the Ref.5. Two of them are the most important.
The first one corresponds to Smoluchowski limit. It yields following simple expression for CVI for sufficiently small particles with negligible CVI frequency dependence:
where:: ε"0" is vacuum dielectric permittivity,: ε"m" is fluid dielectric permittivity,: ζ is
electrokinetic potential: η is dynamic viscosity of the fluid,: K"s" is conductivity of the system,: K"m" is conductivity of the fluid,: ρ"s" is density of the system.
This remarkably simple equation has same wide range of applicability as Smoluchowski equation for
electrophoresis. It is independent on shape of the particles, their concentration.
Validity of this equation is restricted with the following two requirements. First of all it is valid only for thin
Double Layer, when Debye lengthis much smaller than particles radius a::
Secondly, it neglect contribution of the
surface conductivity. This assumes small Dukhin number::
Restriction of the thin
Double Layerlimits applicability of this Smoluchwski type theory only to aqueous systems with sufficiently large particles and not very low ionic strength. This theory does not work well for nano-colloids, including proteins and polymers at low ionic strength. It is not valid for low- or non-polar fluids.
There is another theory that is applicable for other extreme case of thick
Double Layer, when :
This theory takes into consideration overpap of Double Layer that inevitably occur for concentrated systems with thick Double Layer. This allows introduction of so-called "quasi-homogeneous" approach, when overlapped diffuse layers of particles cover complete inter particle space. Theory becomes much simplified in this extreme case, as shown by Shilov and oth. [Shilov, V.N., Borkovskaya, Y.B. and Dukhin A.S. “Electroacoustic theory for concentrated colloids with overlapped DLs at arbitrary ka. Application to nanocolloids and nonaqueous colloids”. JCIS, 277, 347-358 (2004)] . Their derivation predict that surface charge density σ is better parameter than ζ-potential for characterizing electroscoustic phenomena in such systems. Expression for CVI simplified for small particles follows:
*cite book |last=Dukhin |first=Andrei S. |authorlink= |coauthors=Philip J. Goetz |editor= |others= |title=Ultrasound for Characterizing Colloids |origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate=2007-10-03 |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year=2002 |month= |publisher=Elsevier |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=153 |chapter=Electroacoustic Theory |chapterurl=http://www.dispersion.com/pages/theory/electroacoustictheory/electoracoustictheory.html |quote= |ref=
Interface and Colloid Science
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