Name day


Name day
A Swedish calendar page from 1712 with name days listed

A name day is a tradition in many countries in Europe and Latin America that consists of celebrating the day of the year associated with one's given name.

The custom originated with the Catholic and Orthodox calendar of saints, where believers, named after a particular saint, would celebrate that saint's feast day. In many countries, however, there is no longer any explicit connection to Christianity.[1][2]

Contents

History

The celebration of name days has been a tradition in Catholic and Orthodox countries since the Middle Ages, and has also continued in some measure in those countries, such as England and the Scandinavian countries, whose Protestant established church retains certain Catholic traditions. The name days originate in the list of holidays celebrated in commemoration of saints and martyrs of the church. For example, the name Karl or Carl is celebrated in Sweden on January 28, the anniversary of the death of Charlemagne (Charles magnus, i.e., 'the great'). The church promoted celebration of name days (or rather saints' feast days) over birthdays, as the latter was seen as a pagan tradition.

Where name days occur an official list is held containing the current assignations of names to days. There are different lists for Finnish, Swedish, Sami, and other countries that celebrate namedays, though some names are celebrated on the same day in many countries. From the 18th century and onwards the list of name days has been modified in Sweden and Finland, but not in other countries.

Name days in various countries

Bulgaria

Name days (именни дни) in Bulgaria are associated almost always with Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox celebrations. Some names can be celebrated on more than one day and some have even started following foreign traditions[citation needed] (like Valentina being celebrated on the Catholic St. Valentine's Day).[citation needed] St.George's day (Гергьовден, celebrated on 6 May) and St. Ivan's day (Ивановден, celebrated on 7 January) are two of the most popular name days in Bulgaria.

Another example of a name day connected with Christianity is Tsvetnitsa (Цветница, Palm Sunday). On this day people with names derived from flowers, trees, herbs, etc., celebrate. Name days are frequently connected with some year or season features like Dimitrovden (Dimitar's day, 26 Oct.) being the beginning of winter and Gergyovden (George's day, 6 May) being the end of it according to traditional folklore.

Name days in Bulgaria are important and widely celebrated. By an ancient Bulgarian tradition, everybody is welcome on name days; there is no need to invite guests. Presents are given.

Common well-wishes include "May you hear your name from grandchildren and great-grandchildren!" (Да чуеш името си на внуци и правнуци!), "May you hear your name only in good things!" (Да ти се чува името само за добро!) and "May your name be healthy and well!" (Да ти е живо и здраво името!).

Croatia

In Croatia, name day (Croatian: imendan) is a day corresponding to a date in the Catholic calendar when the respective saint's day is celebrated. Even though celebration of the name day is less usual than celebrating birthday, the name day is more often congratulated by broader number of acquaintances. This is due to the fact that the date of birth is seldom known and the person's name is known to many.

The names that are celebrated on the certain saint's day are all the names that correspond to the respective name and all the derivative names. For example, if there is different version of the same name in different languages (e.g. John), i.e. different versions in Slavic, Romance, Germanic or other language groups, all the respective names are celebrated.

Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic, each day of the year corresponds to a personal name (or several names). People celebrate their name day (svátek or more formally jmeniny) on the date corresponding to their own given name.

Name days are commonly of less importance than birthdays to Czech people. However, name day celebrations can be, and often are, held together with friends or co-workers of the same name and in this way it can grow in size and importance.

In the past, by law, parents were not allowed to choose just any name for a child. This has changed, although it is still common to choose the name from the name day "calendar" and any highly unusual name has to be approved by a special office. The original list was the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, but changes have been made to reflect the present-day usage of names.

England

The most important name day in England is St. George's Day - 23 April. St. George is the Patron Saint of England.

Names are not restricted to any official list; parents may choose any name they like. This means that not everyone will have a name day. Birthdays are considered the main celebration of advancing age and name days are not normally marked. Possibly because of an influx of many Polish immigrants, the name day tradition has increased. [1]

A modern source of English name days that is based around Saint's days can be found on the happy name day website.

Finland

Finns celebrate their name days (or nimipäivä) according to their given name on the date given by the calendar published by the University of Helsinki Almanac Office (Almanakkatoimisto). Every day except New Year's Day, Christmas Day and February 29 is a name day. For each day there are names in both Finnish and Swedish; the names are frequently, but not always, cognates.

Women are slightly underrepresented in the calendar: approximately 45 per cent of name days celebrate only women while some 49 per cent are name days of men. The rest are those of names that may be given to either sex, such as Rauni (July 15), or have both a man's and a woman's name, such as Oliver and Olivia (May 29).

Many traditional beliefs attach to various name days, especially involving the weather and the appropriate times to perform seasonal agricultural tasks such as planting some particular crop. For example there is a saying that "Jaakko (James) casts a cold rock into the water", meaning that on Jaakko's day, the 25th of July, the waters start getting colder, which is not far from true on average[citation needed]. The seven days from July 18 to 24th, being all women's name days, are known as the women's week. It is popularly believed to be an especially rainy week, and this is to some extent supported by statistics, as late July and early August are the rainiest time of the year in Finland[citation needed].

The Almanac Office reviews the lists at intervals of 5–10 years, adding new names as they gain popularity and striking others that have faded into disuse. The university owns the copyright to the lists of names and their corresponding dates.

The Finnish Orthodox Church has its own calendar of name days, corresponding to the feasts of Orthodox saints.

France

In France name days (in French: fête) have long been very important in everyday culture and it is still traditional to give a small gift to a friend or family member on their name day.

Germany

A list of name days in Germany

In Germany Name days (in German: Namenstag) are widely popular, but especially so in more traditionally Catholic southern and western regions. Historically they were as important as birthdays.

Greece

In Greece and Cyprus, a name day (Greek: εορτή, eortē, or γιορτή, yiortí, "feast") is celebrated in a similar way to a birthday.[2] It is a strong Greek tradition since antiquity for newborn children to be named after one of their grandparents. This results in a continuation of names in the family line.

According to the Orthodox Church, every day of the year is dedicated to the memory of at least one (usually more than one) saint or martyr. If someone is named after a saint, then there is a big celebration on his or her name day. In Greece and Cyprus many names derive from long pagan tradition (Greek antiquity), and there may not be a Christian saint by the same name. In such a case the person is said "not to have" a name day, or they may choose to celebrate on All Saints' Day. The vast majority of name days are on the same date every year; the few exceptions are names directly or indirectly associated with Easter, and are floating. This facilitates social interaction, as all Greek language calendars include detailed name day lists. Some name days coincide with major Christian feasts, for example people whose names are Chrēstos or Christine have their name day on Christmas, people named after St. Basil have their name day on New Year's Day, Anastásios and Anastasía on Easter Sunday, María and Mários on the Dormition or on the Presentation, etc.

The traditional format of a name day celebration is an open house: no specific invitations are extended and all well-wishers are welcomed. This is not uniformly observed: a family or person may choose to celebrate with invited guests only, at home, at a restaurant, a bar or a club, or not celebrate at all (e.g. following a recent bereavement). Name day celebrations are similar to birthdays, except for expected differences (e.g. there is no cake with candles on a name day). Children celebrate their birthdays and name days equally festively; as the person grows up the emphasis shifts decisively to the name day and birthdays become lower-key, family affairs.

Entertainment provided by the celebrating host may include formal or informal meals, drinks, desserts, music, dancing, etc. It is the person being celebrated that arranges the party and serves the guests, instead of the guests fussing over the celebrant. It is poor form for a guest to arrive at such a celebration "empty-handed", although the gift offered may be something as financially trivial as a card or a few flowers. Money gifts are also considered poor form, except if the celebrant is a child or teenager and the gift is offered by an adult relative or a godparent. It is poor form to celebrate birthdays and name days in too grand a fashion if the two days are close to each other. In such cases the celebrations are best merged. It is also common to shift a name day celebration to the following Friday or Saturday evening if a dinner party is planned.

Hungary

Name days (in Hungarian: névnap) in Hungary are very popular, often as much as a person's actual birthdate. A woman is typically given flowers on her name day by acquaintances, including in the workplace, and the price of flowers often rises around the dates of popular names because of demand. A bottle of alcohol is a common gift for men on their name day. Children frequently bring sweets to school to celebrate their name days. Name days are more often celebrated than birthdays in workplaces, presumably because it is simpler to know the date since most calendars contain a list of name days. You can also find the name day on daily newspapers by the date and on Hungarian websites. Some highly popular names have several name days; in that case, the person chooses on which day he or she wishes to celebrate. The list of the name days is, as usual in name day celebrating cultures, based on the traditional Catholic saints' feasts, but the link of the secular name days calendar to the Catholic calendar is not maintained any more. For example, even religious Catholic people named Gergely (Gregory) after Pope Gregory the Great still celebrate their name days on 12 March, although the Church moved the feast of that saint to 3 September in 1969.

Ireland

Despite having a largely Roman Catholic tradition, in Ireland name days (in Irish: lá na n-ainmeacha) have not generally been very celebrated for a very long time unlike in Continental Europe and it is rather birthdays that are very popularly celebrated. However, perhaps due to the recent influx of Polish migrants this is beginning to change and interest has been steadily growing again, which is not unsurprising given the importance attached to various saint's days in the country. For example, St Brigid's Day on 1 February, St David's Day on March 1, St Patrick's Day on 17 March, St Joseph's Day on 19 March, St Brendan's Day on 16 May, St Kevin's Day on 3 June and St Stephen's Day on 26 December.

Italy

In Italy, one's name day is referred to as his or her "Onomastico" and is viewed as almost as important as a birthday, at least in the Southern regions (where there are historically, stronger Greek influences). Often people receive small gifts on their Onomastico. In Italy (especially in the South), children are often named after saints. Some children are named after the saint on whose feast day they were born, others are named after the patron saint of the town they live in, while still others are named after a saint that the parents feel a connection with.

Latvia

In Latvia, name days (in Latvian "vārdadienas") are settled on certain dates; each day (except for February 29 in leap year) is a name day.[3] Usually Latvian calendars list up to four names each day - around 1,000 names a year. Recently an extended calendar with around 5,000 names was published, and there are also a few extended calendars found on the Internet listing names even on February 29. February 29 is a popular date to celebrate name days of people who do not have a name day; another such date is May 22. People who do not have name days in ordinary calendars can enjoy many variations when to celebrate - on February 29 or May 22 and, if they have their name in an extended calendar or in the church calendar, on the date listed there (so in leap year such a person can choose from 2 to 4 dates when to celebrate). The Latvian name days calendar is updated at one or two-year intervals; anyone can suggest a name for the calendar, usually by sending an application to the State Language Centre ("Valsts valodas centrs").

Celebrations are very much like birthday celebrations. It is popular to celebrate name days in one's workplace - usually the one that has a name day prepares snacks for well-wishers, and during the day colleagues arrive one after another with flowers, sweets and small presents to greet him. Sometimes, especially in smaller companies, a certain time is set for the main celebrations. It is normal to come to a name day celebration without an invitation. At school one is expected to arrive with candy for classmates and teachers. Celebrating name days at home is not as popular as celebrating a birthday, although it may vary depending on the period of time between one's birthday and name day; usually one will eat cake with household members and receive presents.

Poland

Traditionally, name day celebrations (Polish: imieniny) have enjoyed a celebratory emphasis greater than that of birthday celebrations in Poland. However, birthday celebrations are increasingly popular and important, particularly among the young. Imieniny involve the gathering and socializing of friends and family at the celebrant's home, as well as the giving of gifts and flowers at home and elsewhere, such as at the workplace. Local calendars often contain the names celebrated on a given day.

Republic of Macedonia

Name-days (Именден)in the Republic of Macedonia are celebrated throughout the new history of this country. It has some similarities with the other Balkan countries but there are some name-days unique for the country. The name-days are scheduled according to the Christian Orthodox church following the Julian calendar. Each month there are several name-days which are celebrated by the people with the same name. Some of the name-days that are more significant to the history and culture are non-working days for the whole country. At these days everyone's invited or would like to say „Кој дојде - Добредојде“ ("Whoever comes - is welcomed") at the topic language. There is no need for bringing presents but if you like you can bring some (usually wine or something symbolic). You salute the celebrant by saying "Let your name lasts forever" („Нека ти е вечно името“) or "For years to come" („За многу години“). The most celebrated name-days in the Republic of Macedonia are St. Stefan (January, 9th), Bogojavlenie (January, 19), St, Jovan (January, 20), Blagovec (April, 7), Gjurgjovden (May, 06), Ss. Cyril and Methodius (May, 24), St. Kostadin and Elena (June, 03), St. Petar (July, 12), St. Pavle (July, 13), St.Dimitar (November, 8th)

Romania

Name days (onomastica) in Romania are associated with the Orthodox saints celebrations. Name days are almost as important as birthdays, and only those who have the name of that particular saint get celebrated in that day. Some of the most important celabration days are: January, 7 - Sf. Ion (St. John), June, 29 - Sf. Petru si Pavel (St. Peter and Paul), August, 15 - Sf. Maria (St. Mary), November, 8 - Sf. Mihail si Gavril (St, Michael and Gabriel), November, 30 - Sf. Andrei (St. Andrew).

Russia

In Russia, name days (именины (imeniny) in Russian) have been celebrated apart from birthdays. Some calendars contain name days, but usually one must buy a special name day calendar. Celebrations range from cards and flowers to full-blown celebrations similar to birthday parties.[1] Such a celebration begins with attendance at the divine services marking that day (in the Russian tradition, the All-Night Vigil and Divine Liturgy), and usually with a festive party thereafter. Before the October Revolution, the name day was considered as important as, or more important than, the celebration of the birthday. The rationale for this importance is that one's baptism is the event by which they are "born anew" in Christ. In modern times, however, few people know the traditions associated with it.

In royal tradition, gifts would be given, such as a diamond or a pearl.

One of the most popular references of a Russian name day is the entire first act of Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters, where Irina is celebrating her name day.

Another literary depiction of a formal Russian name day ceremony occurs in Alexander Pushkin's "Eugene Onegin" where Tatiana's name day is celebrated. Name days are also mentioned in Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace, such as Book I, chapter 7 where both mother and youngest daughter of the Rostov family are celebrating the same name day of Natalya. Name day is mentioned in passing in "Anastasia: The Last Grand Duchess," published by The Royal Diaries.

Note: although name day ("именины"/"imeniny") celebration is not as popular as birthday celebration, the Russian word for a birthday ("день рождения"/"djen' rozhdenia") person is still "именинник"/"imeninnik" (a person whose name day is being celebrated).

Scandinavia

During medieval times name days were of little significance in the Nordic countries, except for the celebration of patron saints for various guilds. A more widespread celebration of name days began in the 17th century in Sweden, at first in the royal court and among aristocracy, but successively also among the general population. The Church of Sweden promoted celebration of name days over birthdays, as the latter was seen as a pagan tradition. Although the name day tradition never gained similar popularity in Denmark and Norway, it is occasionally celebrated.[citation needed]

Slovakia

In Slovakia name days (Slovak: meniny) are widely celebrated. Name days are more often celebrated than birthdays in workplaces, presumably because it is simpler to know the date since most calendars contain a list of name days. You can also find the name day in the header of daily newspapers. Celebrations in elementary schools are different than those within the family as the celebrant gives candies to his or her classmates. Within the family, birthday-like celebrations are often held with cakes, presents and toasts. Flowers are sometimes sold out for popular name days. In the past, by law, parents were not allowed to choose just any name for their child. This has changed, although it is still common to choose the name from the nameday list in the calendar. The original list was the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, but changes have been made to reflect the present-day usage of names.

Slovenia

Name days (called god, n., m., sing.) were widely celebrated, and preferred over birthday celebrations, until after World War II and the advent of Communism. In rural areas as well as among certain strata of town people the custom of celebrating name days lasted longer. Nowadays, while the tradition has not been completely obliterated, name days are celebrated mostly among older people.

Spain and Latin America

Until recently,[specify] name days in Spain and Latin America (called onomásticas or día de mi/su santo) were widely celebrated and had more importance than birthday celebrations. Onomásticas are not limited to saints but also include the celebration days of the different representations of the Virgin Mary. For example, the name day of a woman named Carmen would be July 16, day of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. Currently, onomásticas are still remembered in more traditional families but are not generally celebrated with festive parties and presents as they were in the past. To celebrate name days, practicing Catholics typically attend mass and have some intimate family celebration.

Sweden

A Day of Celebration. A painting by Swedish artist Fanny Brate depicting preparations for a name day celebration. Oil on canvas, 1902.

From the 18th century onwards, names used by the royal family were introduced to the Swedish list of name days, followed by other common names. In 1901 a comprehensive modernization was made to make the list up to date with current names. The monopoly on almanacs, held by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, expired in 1972 and so did the official name day list. Competing name day lists began to emerge but the official list was still in general use until 1986 when consensus of a new list with three names on each day was reached. This list was revised in 1993 and reduced to two names on each day. However, widespread dissatisfaction with the list prompted the Swedish Academy to compile a new two-name list which was finally accepted and brought into use in 2001. Although it does not have the official status of the 1901 or older lists, it is now universally used in Sweden.

Turkey

Mixture of many traditions, Name Day is partly celebrated in Turkey. Here are some examples of the "name birthdays": Ayşe March 15, Kemal 21 June, Selim 3 December, Zeynep 7 April, Abdullah 5 December, Ali 30 January. etc.

Ukraine

Name days in Ukraine (Ukrainian: день ангела) are usually associated with Ukrainian Orthodox Church celebrations of a day when a saint was born.

USA

The particular mix of cultures in the United States allows a wide variety of name days to be celebrated. Many people rely on the name day calendar of their home culture. A variety of name day calendars have been published locally, some of which do not rely on the usual raison d'être for name days—a feast for a saint after whom a person with a Christian name is named. Some of these calendars are secular, and are a compilation of anniversaries based on such things as the names of celebrities or U.S. presidents. Name days, however, are not a prominent feature of the shared culture in the United States. However, as an exception, Saint Patrick's Day is often celebrated on March 17 across the U.S., though mostly for secular reasons involving street parades, food, and alcohol.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Sophie Koulomzin (1980), Many Worlds: A Russian Life, St Vladimir's Seminary Press, ISBN 9780913836729, http://books.google.com/?id=fUXi5H0zsf0C&pg=PA29&dq=Namesdays 
  2. ^ a b Anne R. Kaplan, Marjorie A. Hoover, Willard Burgess Moore (1986), The Minnesota Ethnic Food Book, Minnesota Historical Society, ISBN 9780873511988, http://books.google.com/?id=qdyDscbzvV0C&pg=PA173&dq=Namesdays 
  3. ^ Latvian Culture Portal: Traditional Festivities.

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • name´-day´ — name day, 1. the day sacred to the saint whose name a person bears: »The men were celebrating the Feast of St. Nicholas, the Czar s name day, with banquets and vodka (New Yorker). 2. the day on which a child is named. –name´ day´, adjective …   Useful english dictionary

  • name day — n the day each year when people of some Christian religions celebrate the particular ↑saint (=holy person) whose name they have been given …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • name day — name′ day n. 1) the feast day of the saint after whom a person is named 2) the day on which a person is christened • Etymology: 1715–25 …   From formal English to slang

  • name day — name ,day noun count in the Catholic religion, a special day celebrated each year in honor of the particular SAINT that a person is named for …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • name day — n. the feast day of the saint after whom one is named …   English World dictionary

  • name day — noun the feast day of a saint whose name one bears • Hypernyms: ↑saint s day * * * noun 1. : the day of the saint whose name one bears 2. : the day under London stock exchange rules on which a ticket giving the name of the buyer of securities and …   Useful english dictionary

  • name day — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms name day : singular name day plural name days in the Catholic religion, a special day celebrated each year in honour of the particular saint that a person is named after …   English dictionary

  • name day — {n.} The day of the saint for whom a person is named. * /Lawrence s name day is August 10, the feast of St. Lawrence./ …   Dictionary of American idioms

  • name day — {n.} The day of the saint for whom a person is named. * /Lawrence s name day is August 10, the feast of St. Lawrence./ …   Dictionary of American idioms

  • name\ day — noun the day of the saint for whom a person is named. Lawrence s name day is August 10, the feast of St. Lawrence …   Словарь американских идиом


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