- Pioneer Zephyr
The "Pioneer Zephyr" is a diesel-powered
railroadtrain formed of railroad cars permanently articulated together with Jacobs bogies, built by the Budd Companyin 1934 for the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad(CB&Q), commonly known as the Burlington. The train featured extensive use of stainless steel, was originally named the "Zephyr", and was meant as a promotional tool to advertise passenger rail service in the United States. The construction included innovations such as shotwelding(a specialized type of spot welding) to join the stainless steel, and articulation to reduce its weight.
On May 26, 1934, it set a speed record for travel between Denver,
Colorado, and Chicago, Illinois, when it made a 1,015- mile(1,633 km) non-stop "Dawn-to-Dusk" dash in 13 hours 5 minutes at an average speed of 77 mph (124 km/h). For one section of the run it reached a speed of 112.5 mph (181 km/h), just short of the then US land speed record of 115 mph (185 km/h). The historic dash inspired two films and the train's nickname, "Silver Streak".cite web| publisher=Chicago Museum of Science and Industry| work=excerpts from the New York Times| month=May 27,| year=1934| url=http://www.msichicago.org/exhibit/zephyr/history/nytimes/nytimes.html| title=Pioneer Zephyr - A Legendary History| accessyear=2005| accessmonthday=February 24| ] cite web| author=Gordon-Gilmore, Randy| year=2002| url=http://www.prototrains.com/pioneer/pioneer.html| title=Pioneer Zephyr| accessyear=2005| accessmonthday=February 24| work=ProtoTrains| ] Johnston and Welsh, p 15.] Zimmerman, p. 16.]
The train entered regular revenue service on November 11, 1934, between Kansas City,
Missouri, Omaha and Lincoln, Nebraska. It operated this and other routes until its retirement in 1960, when it was donated to Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry, where it remains on public display. The train is generally regarded as the first successful streamlineron American railroads.Zimmerman, p. 26.]
Concept and construction
In the early 1930s, the U.S. was in the depths of the
Great Depression. Without the money to purchase new goods, freight trains were not hauling as much as they had in the previous decade. People who could not buy goods also could not afford to travel to the extent that they had before, so passenger revenues were also down. Even if they did have the money to travel, the equipment that railroads were using to carry passengers had not changed much since the middle of the 19th century. Railroads needed a way to re-energize the traveling public and offer a bit of hope for the days to come.cite web| publisher=PBS Online / WGBH| year=2000| url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/streamliners/peopleevents/p_rbudd.html| title=American Experience / Streamliners / People & Events / Ralph Budd| accessyear=2005| accessmonthday=February 22| ]
One of the railroad presidents who faced this challenge was
Ralph Budd, formerly of the Great Northern Railway and now president of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad(Burlington), who needed a new train to get the public interested in traveling again. Naming the train was task that was very seriously taken by Budd. He wanted a name that started with the letter "Z" because this train was intended to be the "last word" in passenger service; Budd and his coworkers looked up the last words in their dictionaries, but neither "zymurgy" nor "zyzzle" conveyed the meanings that Budd was looking for. The name of the new train came from " The Canterbury Tales", which Budd had been reading. The story begins with pilgrims setting out on a journey, inspired by the budding springtime and by Zephyrus, the gentle and nurturing west wind. Budd thought that would be an excellent name for a sleek new traveling machine—"Zephyr". [Kisor, p. 16] Zimmerman, p. 29.]
In 1932 Ralph Budd met
Edward G. Budd(no relation), an automotive steel pioneer who was founder and president of the Budd Company. Edward Budd was demonstrating his new carbody construction in a prototype rail motorcar built of stainless steel. Stainless steel provided many benefits over traditional wood and hardened steel for railroad carbodies; it was a lighter and stronger material, and its natural silver appearance and resistance to corrosionmeant that it would not have to be painted to protect it from the weather. Since the carbody was much lighter than similar cars, it would be able to carry a higher revenue load for the same cost.
The problem with building stainless steel cars was that nobody could find an adequate way to hold the body together, until the Budd Company patented the
shotweldingtechnique. On August 20, 1932, Earl J. Ragsdale, an engineer at the Budd Company, filed for a patent on "Method and product of electric welding"; on January 16, 1934, the United States Patent and Trademark Officegranted US patent 1,944,106 to the Budd Company to cover the technique.ref patent| country=US |number=1944106 |status=patent |title=Method and product of electric welding |pubdate= |gdate=1934-01-15 |fdate=December 12, 1933 |pridate= |invent1=Earl J. W. Ragsdale |invent2= |assign1=Edward G. Budd Manufacturing Company |assign2= |class= ] Basically, because of the nature of stainless steel, traditional weldingmethods would unacceptably weaken the metal at the joint. In a spotweld, the two pieces of metal that are to be joined are pressed together at the joint with an electrodeon each side of the joint. A very high electric current is passed through the joint, which fuses the two pieces of metal together.Zimmerman, p. 19.]
Another factor in making the "Zephyr" lighter than conventional trains was that the individual carbodies in the train share their trucks with adjacent cars.Johnston and Welsh, p. 20.] In this design by Budd engineer
Walter B. Dean, the train was three articulated compartments. On conventional passenger cars, each carbody rode upon a pair of trucks (wheel/axle assembly), with one truck at each end. The articulation not only reduced the number of trucks under the train, but it also dispensed with the need for couplers between each of the carbodies, further reducing the train's weight.Zimmerman, p. 25.]
The exterior design of the train was left to aeronautical engineer
Albert Gardner Dean(Walter Dean's younger brother) who designed the sloping nose shape, with architect John Harbesonand industrial designer Paul Philippe Cretdevising a way to strengthen and beautify the sides with the train's horizontal fluting.Johnston and Welsh, p. 16.] Zimmerman, p. 24.] On April 15, 1936, Col. Ragsdale, Walter Dean and Albert Dean, filed for patents on "Rail Car Front End Construction." The United States Patent and Trademark Office assigned US patents 2,256,493 [ref patent| country=US |number=2256493 |status=patent |title=Rail car front end construction |pubdate= |gdate=1941-09-23 |fdate=April 13, 1934 |pridate= |invent1=Earl J. W. Ragsdale |invent2=Albert G. and Walter P. Dean |assign1=Budd Manufacturing Company |assign2= |class= ] and 2,256,494 [ref patent |country=US |number=2256494 |status=patent |title=Rail car front end construction |pubdate= |gdate=1941-09-23 |fdate=April 15, 1936 |pridate= |invent1=Earl J. W. Ragsdale |invent2=Albert G. Dean |assign1=Budd Manufacturing Company |assign2= |class= ] to the Budd Company to cover the technique.
The first "Zephyr" was completed by Budd Company on April 9, 1934, powered by an 8-cylinder, 600-
horsepower(447 kW), 8-201-A model Winton Motor Companyengine. Like the diesel-electric locomotives that soon displaced the steam locomotiveon American railroads, this engine powered an electrical generator; the electricity it generated was then fed to electric traction motors connected to the axles in the train's front truck.
The train's engineer sat in a small compartment in the nose of the train, directly in front of the prime mover. Behind the engine in the first carbody was a ft to m|30|abbr=yes|wiki=yes long
railway post officesection. The second carbody consisted of a small baggage section and a short buffet and 20-passenger coach section. The third and final carbody in the train, as originally built, was configured as half coach (40-passenger seats) and half observation car(12 passenger seats). As built, the train had 72 seats and could carry 50,000 pounds (22.7 tonnes) of baggage and express freight. This train's official christening occurred on April 18, 1934, at the Pennsylvania Railroad's Broad Street Station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Zimmerman, p. 32.]
The Budd Company used the experience learned in building the "Zephyr" to build similar trains (such as the "
Flying Yankee") for other railroads, as well as a number of other "Zephyr"s for the Burlington.
Promotion: "Dawn-to-Dusk" dash
To catch the public's attention, this train was not simply rolled out of the factory for some dignitary to smash a bottle of champagne on its nose; it made a dash from one end of the CB&Q, in Denver, to the other, in Chicago. The railroad spared no expense in planning the operations. All other trains along the "Zephyr"
's route were diverted to sidings and the turnouts were spiked into the proper alignment for the "Zephyr" 's run. Track and maintenance of wayworkers checked every single spike and bolt along the train's route to ensure that there would not be any problems, and temporary speed signs were installed along the route to warn the "Zephyr" 's driver of curves that would be dangerous at high speeds. On the day of the dash, every road grade crossingwas manned by a flagman to stop automobile traffic ahead of the train and to ensure that the crossing was clear. Stations along the route were protected by local police officers and members of the American Legionand the Boy Scouts of America.Zimmerman, p. 37.]
The train left Denver at 7:04 AM Central Daylight Time and arrived in Chicago at 8:09 PM, 13 hours 5 minutes later, at an average speed of 77 mph (124 km/h). For one section of the run, the train reached a speed of 112.5 mph (181 km/h), close to the world land speed record of 130.6 mph (210.2 km/h) of 1903, which had been achieved in repeated runs on dedicated test track. The non-stop 1,015 mile (1,633 km) trip exceeded the railroad's expectations in being 1 hour 55 minutes faster than was scheduled. Reporters along the route told of the "silver streak" that ran by faster than any other train that normally rode American rails at the time. The Burlington's contemporary passenger trains plied the same distance in around 25 hours.
Riding the train were Ralph Budd, Edward G. Budd, president
H. L. Hamiltonof the Winton Motor Company (at that time a part of the new General Motors Electro-Motive Division), a number of reporters, some Burlington employees, lucky members of the public, and Zeph, a burrothat was contributed by a Coloradonewspaper, the "Rocky Mountain News", as a mascot for the train. The newspaper had described Zeph to the railroad as a "Rocky Mountain Canary" so the train's crew had originally planned only enough space for a birdcage; when they found out it wasn't a bird, the railroad hastily built a pen in the baggage section and bought some hay for it. When asked about the burro, Ralph Budd replied "Why not? One more jackass on this trip won't make a difference."cite web| publisher=Chicago Museum of Science and Industry| year=2002| url=http://www.msichicago.org/exhibit/zephyr/history/dawn/dawn.html| title=Pioneer Zephyr, a legendary history - The Dawn To Dusk Club| accessyear=2005| accessmonthday=March 1| ]
After the train arrived in Chicago, it traveled a little farther to the 1934
Century of Progressfair (noted in some press articles about the dash as the "Chicago World's Fair") where it was put on public display on opening day. After its display on the "Wings of a Century" stage, the train was taken on a 31-state, 222-city publicity tour. More than 2 million people saw the train before it entered revenue service.Zimmerman, p. 40.]
Part of the tour included a test run between Chicago and
Minneapolis-St. Paula full five hours faster than the Burlington's fastest steam-powered train. Due to the "Zephyr"'s success on this test run, the Burlington immediately ordered two more "Zephyr" trainsets that would be dubbed the "Twin Zephyrs"; the new trains debuted in April 1935 on this route.
Regular revenue service
The "Zephyr"'s power (leading) car was numbered 9900, the baggage-coach
combine car505, and the coach-observation 570. The train was placed in regular service between Kansas City, Missouri, Omaha and Lincoln, Nebraska, on November 11, 1934, replacing a pair of steam locomotives and six heavyweight passenger cars, weighing up to eight times as much as the "Zephyr". By June 1935, it proved popular enough to add a fourth car, providing additional coach seating. The fourth car was originally a 40-seat coach number 525, but the following June it was switched to Twin Cities service, then back to the "Pioneer Zephyr" in December. Car 525 remained on the train until June 1938. Just over five years after it was introduced, the "Pioneer Zephyr" crossed the one million mile mark in regular service on December 29, 1939, near Council Bluffs, Iowa.
Ralph Budd and the Burlington capitalized on the "Zephyr"'s success. However, most passenger trains needed larger capacity. Thus, as the Burlington made a transition to larger diesel-electric locomotives pulling individual passenger cars, new streamlined cars of standard-size were ordered, which quickly became the standard of many railroads. However, Burlington was determined to be the leader, and ordered its large "E" series passenger diesels to also be equipped with matching stainless-steel fluting. Many of the Burlington's long distance named passenger trains began operating under the "Zephyr" banner, including the "
Nebraska Zephyr", " Twin Cities Zephyr", and perhaps the most famous of the namesake, the " California Zephyr".
On the second anniversary of the train's famous dash, the original "Zephyr" was rechristened the "Pioneer Zephyr" to distinguish it as the first of the Burlington's growing "Zephyr" fleet. In 1938, car 525 was replaced by car number 500, a 40-seat buffet/lounge car, to provide light meals. Car number 505, the baggage-coach combine, was rebuilt at this time into a full
baggage car, but it kept its original windows.Zimmerman, p. 43.]
In regular service, the "Pioneer Zephyr" had its share of accidents. In 1939 it was involved in a head-on collision with a freight train that completely destroyed the cab. The train was rebuilt and re-entered revenue service soon afterward, but the accident strengthened the desire of locomotive designers to move the cab back from the front of the locomotive to above a large nose, as on
EMD F-unitand EMD E-unitlocomotives.
Since the "Pioneer Zephyr" was built of stainless steel, which is not as recyclable as aluminum, the train was spared from the metal recycling drives of
World War II. By contrast, Union Pacific's M-10000, built of aluminum, was scrapped in 1942 for the war effort, among other reasons.
In 1948 and 1949, the "Pioneer Zephyr" was temporarily removed from service to participate in the
Chicago Railroad Fair's "Wheels A-Rolling" pageant. The fair's purpose was to celebrate 100 years of railroad history west of Chicago, and "Pioneer Zephyr" 's role in the pageant was to highlight the latest strides in railroad technology. It resumed regular passenger operations when the fair ended on October 2, 1949. [Chicago Railroad Fair Official Guide Book (1949).] By 1955 the "Pioneer Zephyr" 's route had been updated to run between Galesburg, Illinois, and Saint Joseph, Missouri; the trainset had been in continual service since 1934, operating over nearly 3 million miles (4.8 million kilometres). The "Pioneer Zephyr" 's last revenue run was a trip from Lincoln, Nebraska, to Kansas City, Missouri, (along the train's regular revenue route) that then continued to Chicagoon March 20, 1960. When Amtraktook over passenger rail services in 1971, the legendary "Zephyr" name was preserved, and the "California Zephyr" is an Amtrak route in the 21st century.
Use in film
Press publicity had apparently first coined the term "Silver Streak". The "Pioneer Zephyr"'s famous Denver-Chicago dash served as the inspiration for the 1934 film "Silver Streak" starring
Charles Starrett. In that story, the crew was racing to the Boulder Damconstruction site with an iron lung, with only moments to spare. The original "Zephyr" trainset was used for the exterior shots in the film, while interior scenes were filmed on a soundstage in Hollywood. For the film, the "Burlington Route" nameplate on the train's nose was replaced with one that read "Silver Streak".
More than 40 years later, that classic film—or at least the name "Silver Streak"—served as the inspiration for a newer film of the same name. "Silver Streak" (1976) starred
Gene Wilderand Richard Pryor; rather than using the "Pioneer Zephyr", the combination murder-mystery and comedy was set in the era in which it was filmed, with the train being patterned more after then modern long-distance trains.
On May 26, 1960, the 26th anniversary of the "Dawn-to-Dusk" dash, the original "Pioneer Zephyr" train (car numbers 9900, 505 and 570) was donated to Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry. Car number 500, which operated with the train from 1938, went along with "
Mark Twain Zephyr" trainset 9903 to a party in Mount Pleasant, Iowa, for static display in a town park, but plans for the train's display did not work out; car 500 and the "Mark Twain Zephyr" are currently stored in Chicago and plans are currently underway to display it in Fairfield, Iowa.cite web| author=Lotz, David| date=Spring 2002| url=http://www.railmerchants.net/mt-zephyr.htm| title=History of the Mark Twain Zephyr| accessyear=2005| accessmonthday=February 27| publisher=Rail Merchants International| ]
The Chicago museum displayed the "Pioneer Zephyr" outside the museum, with no protection from the weather, until 1994. At that time, the steam locomotive that shared the display space with the "Zephyr", Santa Fe #2903, was donated to the
Illinois Railway Museum, while the Chicago museum prepared a new display location for the "Zephyr".cite web| work=Trackside| url=http://www.trainweb.org/tracksideonline/Program118.html| title=The Pioneer Zephyr comes home| accessyear=2005| accessmonthday=February 25| ]
The Chicago museum dug a pit in front of the building and built a new display area for the "Zephyr", where it could be displayed year-round. In 1998, after the train received a cosmetic restoration by
Northern Rail Car, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the pit was finally ready to receive the train. The "Pioneer Zephyr" train is still on display at the museum just outside the main entrance from the underground parking area for the museum, where it is one of the more popular exhibits.
In addition to the "Pioneer Zephyr", two other legacies remain. An operable "
Nebraska Zephyr" train was donated to the large Illinois Railway Museum at Union, west of Chicago. There, powered by one of the large "E" series passenger diesels (an EMD E5) with the distinctive and durable stainless-steel fluting, it is still operated on short runs on the Museum's substantial trackage, providing train enthusiasts and tourists with an experience reminiscent of the heyday of the Burlington's "Zephyr" service.cite web| publisher=Illinois Railway Museum| url=http://www.irm.org/history/collections.html| title=History of the IRM: Collections| month=November 25| year=2005| accessmonthday=May 24| accessyear=2007| ] cite web| publisher=Illinois Railway Museum| url=http://www.irm.org/history/restoration.html| title=History of the IRM: Restoration| year=2005| month=November 25| accessyear=2007| accessmonthday=May 24| ]
Also utilizing the famous name, the "
Minnesota Zephyr" is an elegant dining train located in the historic city of Stillwater, Minnesota, although it is not directly associated with the historic Burlington "Zephyr" fleet. Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdomin Allentown, Pennsylvaniahas a miniature replica train ride called "Zephyr" which was built in 1935 and helped the park survive the Great Depression. [cite web| author=Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom| url=http://www.dorneypark.com/public/inside_park/rides/rides/zephyr.cfm| title=Rides: Zephyr| year=2006| accessyear=2006| accessmonthday=June 15| publisher=Cedar Fair Entertainment Company| ]
Due to the "Zephyr"
's place in American railroad history, many model railroaders have built their own versions of the "Pioneer Zephyr" in miniature. Several model manufacturers are now producing commercial ready-to-run models or kits of the train for modelers to build. This list is sorted by the manufacturer's release date:
American Flyerproduced a ready-to-run "Pioneer Zephyr" model in S scale(1:64) in 1965. [cite web| url=http://www.pufferbellys.com//cgi-bin/poss.cgi?PASS=DETAIL&ICN=20011016104251| title=AMERICAN FLYER The Pioneer 800 Set, 1965| publisher=Pufferbelly's of Waco| accessyear=2007| accessmonthday=July 13| ]
* Challenger Imports imported limited production ready-to-run brass models in
HO scale(1:87) of the 4-car "Pioneer Zephyr", "Mark Twain Zephyr" and the Boston and Maine Railroad's "Maine Cheshire" and "Maine Minuteman" in 1993. [cite web| url=http://www.railmodel.com/bulletins/chl/CBQ_BM_Shovelnoses.htm| title=Shovelnoses| publisher=BPL Brassworks| accessyear=2007| accessmonthday=July 13| ]
* Fine N-Scale Products released a kit in 1996 in
N scale(1:160) that includes an option for car number 500. [cite web| url=http://www.finenscale.com/zephyr.html| title=Burlington Zephyr| publisher=Fine N-Scale Products| year=2002| accessyear=2007| accessmonthday=July 13| ]
* Con-Cor made limited-run models available in both HO scale and N scale that were released in 2005. [cite web| url=http://www.all-railroads.com/zephyr.html| title="HO" and "N" Scale Con-Cor 1934 Pioneer Zephyr| publisher=Con-Cor| year=2007| accessyear=2007| accessmonthday=July 13 ]
* River Raisin Models released a ready-to-run model in S scale of both the "Pioneer Zephyr" (in three- and four-car configurations) and the similar "
Flying Yankee", in 2005. [cite web| url=http://www.riverraisinmodels.com/budd.html| title=Budd "Shovelnose" Trainsets Delivered!| publisher=River Raisin Models| year=2007| accessyear=2007| accessmonthday=July 13| ]
MTH Electric Trainsreleased a limited production ready-to-run model of the three-car "Pioneer Zephyr" in O scale(1:48) in 2005. [cite web| url=http://www.mth-railking.com/detail.asp?item=20-2543-1| title=Pioneer Zephyr Diesel Passenger Set w/Proto-Soundr 2.0| publisher=MTH Electric Trains| accessyear=2007| accessmonthday=July 13| ]
* In 2007,
Fisher-Pricereleased an engine called "Knight" for their GeoTrax Rail & Road System that is clearly inspired by the "Zephyr". [cite web| url=http://www.fisher-price.com/fp.aspx?st=5756&e=bio&pid=41377| title="Knight & Sir John"| publisher=Fisher-Price Inc.| year=2008| accessyear=2008| accessmonthday=March 16| ]
Flying Yankee"—A very similar streamlined trainset that operated on the Boston and Maine Railroad; it is undergoing restoration to operating condition as of 2006.
Nebraska Zephyr"—Another of Burlington's "Zephyr" fleet, one example of which is preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum.
Fliegender Hamburger" ("Flying Hamburger")—a German diesel trainset entering service in 1933, performing regularly at speeds of up to 100 mph (160 km/h).
* American Society of Mechanical Engineers (November 18, 1980), " [http://www.asme.org/history/brochures/h058.pdf The Pioneer Zephyr] " (PDF). Retrieved February 24, 2005.
* (February 2005) Trains Timeline, "Trains Magazine", Kalmbach Publishing, p. 9.
* Chronicle of the rise of diesel power on the Burlington with specific emphasis on the Pioneer Zephyr, its record-setting run, and its descendants.
* The author of this book was a passenger aboard the "Dawn-to-Dusk" run in 1934.
* [http://www.msichicago.org/ Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago official website] —The current home of the "Pioneer Zephyr"
* [http://www.prototrains.com/patents/patents.html Zephyr Patents] —PDF reproductions of the patents developed for construction of the "Pioneer Zephyr".
* [http://www.irm.org/ Illinois Railway Museum official website] —Home of many more Burlington artifacts, including the "
Nebraska Zephyr" trainset.
* [http://members.aol.com/bpzephyr/bpz.html The Burlington Pioneer Zephyr] —site with photographs of the "Pioneer Zephyr" trainset on outdoors display in Chicago.
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