- Proto 2
Proto 2 is the name of the $55 million initiative of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, or
DARPA, to create a thought-controlled prosthetic arm. Its predecessor was called Proto 1 and was capable of reasonably complicated movements like rolling the shoulders, wrists, flexing the fingers. etc.
Proto 2 is a critical milestone of thought-controlled mechanical arms. It is complete with hand and articulated fingers—that can perform 25 joint motions. This dexterity approaches that of a real arm(which makes about 30 motions)- a great improvement over the Proto 1. A person wearing a Proto 2 could "conceivably play the piano". [ Popular science magazine, august 2007 ]
The next steps are to shrink the battery, develop more-efficient motors, and refine the bulky electrodes used to read electrical signals in muscles.
How it works
* Control SystemResearchers are experimenting with injectible myoelectric sensors (IMES) that detect muscle activity and wirelessly transmit commands to the prosthetic arm- in order to eliminate the bulkiness. A wire coil wrapped over the shoulder supplies wireless power to the implants and relays signals to computers in the prosthetic that decipher the command and tell the arm to move. The team is also considering implanting electrodes directly on nerves.
* PowerResearchers are exploring a hydrogen-peroxide pneumatic system to replace electric motors, which are bulky, slow and weak. The hydrogen peroxide reacts with an iridium catalyst to drive the arm's movements. The wearer would install a fresh hydrogen-peroxide canister each morning.
* FlexibilityThe Proto 2 performs 25 joint motions: The shoulder and wrist are capable of roll, pitch and yaw, the elbow can flex, and the fingers and thumbs bend at each knuckle. Each joint brings together two lightweight "bones" made of carbon fiber and aluminum alloys.
* Building blocksModular construction—shoulder to elbow, elbow to wrist—allows doctors to adapt the limb to patients' needs.
Researchers are hoping for it to be accepted for clinical trials by 2009.
* [http://www.popsci.com/popsci/printerfriendly/technology/5dfc3bd0efe84110vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html Popular Science, August 2007 issue- Details and images of Proto 2]
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proto- — [prōt′ō, prōt′ə] [Gr prōto < prōtos, first < IE * pṛto < base * pro , early, ahead > L pro , Gr pro ] combining form 1. first in time, original, primitive [protoplast] 2. first in importance, principal, chief [protonotary] 3. [P ]… … English World dictionary
proto- — pref. Elemento que significa primeiro. • Nota: É seguido de hífen quando o segundo elemento começa por vogal, h, r ou s (ex.: proto árico, proto história, proto revolucionário, proto sulfureto) … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
Proto® — /prōˈtō/ (S Afr) noun The name of a type of breathing apparatus used in mine rescues Proto team or proto team noun A team of people trained to deal with underground rescues, etc … Useful english dictionary
proto- — Prefijo que significa primero. Medical Dictionary. 2011 … Diccionario médico
proto- — [dal gr. prō̂tos primo , in composizione prōto ]. 1. Primo elemento di molte parole composte, che significa primo in ordine di tempo o di spazio (protocanonico, protomartire ), o in ordine d importanza (protomedico, protonotaro ). 2. Sign. partic … Enciclopedia Italiana
proto- — [prəutəu, tə US proutou, tə] prefix [: Late Latin; Origin: Greek, from protos first ] technical existing or coming before other things of the same type ▪ a proto fascist group ▪ a prototype … Dictionary of contemporary English