Form 10-K

Form 10-K

A Form 10-K is an annual report required by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), that gives a comprehensive summary of a public company's performance. Although similarly named, the annual report on Form 10-K is distinct from the often glossy "annual report to shareholders", which a company must send to its shareholders when it holds an annual meeting to elect directors (though some companies combine the annual report and the 10-K into one document). The 10-K includes information such as company history, organizational structure, executive compensation, equity, subsidiaries, and audited financial statements, among other information.

Companies with more than $10 million in assets whose securities are held by more than 500 owners must file annual and other periodic reports, regardless of whether the securities are publicly or privately traded. If a shareholder requests a company’s Form 10-K, the company must provide a copy. In addition, most large companies must disclose on Form 10-K whether the company makes its periodic and current reports available, free of charge, on its website. Form 10-K, as well as other SEC filings may be searched at the EDGAR database on the SEC's website.

In addition to the 10-K, which is filed annually, a company is also required to file quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. Information for the final quarter of a firm's fiscal year is included in the annual 10-K, so only three 10-Q filings are made each year. In the period between these filings, and in case of a significant event, such as a CEO departing or bankruptcy, a Form 8-K must be filed in order to provide up to date information.

The name of the Form 10-K comes from the CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) designation of the form pursuant to sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as amended.

Related Forms

Unlike the 10-K filed annually, other forms serve related purposes, but have different schedules. form 10-q, much briefer, is filed after the three quarters that do not have a 10-K filing. form 8-k covers special material events that occur between 10-K and 10-Q filings.

Filing Deadlines

Historically, Form 10-K had to be filed with the SEC within 90 days after the end of the company's fiscal year. However, in September 2002, the SEC approved a Final Rule that changed the deadlines to 75 days for Form 10-K for "accelerated filers"; meaning issuers that have a public float of at least $75 million, that have been subject to the Exchange Act's reporting requirements for at least 12 calendar months, that previously have filed at least one annual report, and that are not eligible to file their quarterly and annual reports on Forms 10-QSB and 10-KSB. These shortened deadlines were to be phased in over a three-year period, however in 2004 the SEC postponed the three-year phase in by one year. In December 2005, the SEC created a third category of "large accelerated filers," accelerated filers with a public float of over $700 million. As of December 27, 2005, the deadline for filing for large accelerated filers was still 75 days, however beginning with the fiscal year ending on or after December 15, 2006, the deadline will be 60 days. For other accelerated filers the deadline will remain at 75 days and for non-accelerated filers the deadline will remain at 90 days. For further reading, see the Final Rules [] section of the SEC's website, referencing Rule 33-8644.


Part 1

Item 1 - Business

This describes the business of the company. Describes who and what the company does, what subsidiaries it owns, what markets it operates in. It may also include recent events, competition, regulations, and labor issues. (Some industries are heavily regulated, have complex labor requirements, which have significant effects on the business.) Other topics in this section may include special operating costs, seasonal factors, or insurance matters.

Item 1A - Risk Factors

Here, the company lays out anything that could go wrong, what are likely external effects, possible future failures to meet obligations, and other risks disclosed to adequately warn investors and potential investors.

Item 2 - Properties

This section lays out the significant properties, physical assets, of the company. This includes all types of property, including intellectual property.

Item 3 - Legal Proceedings

Here, the company discloses any significant pending law suit or other legal proceeding. References to these proceedings could also be disclosed in the Risks section or other parts of the report.

Item 4 - Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

Disclosures that must be stated regarding officers.

Item 5 - Market

Gives highs and lows of stock, in a simple statement.

Item 6 - Consolidated Financial Data

What it says

Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis

Here, management discusses the operations of the company in detail by usually comparing the current period versus prior period. These comparisons provide a reader an overview of the operational issues of what causes such increases or decreases in the business.

Forward Looking Statements

This is the disclaimer that projections as to future performance are not guaranteed, and things could go otherwise.

Item 8 - Financial Statements

1. Independent Auditor's Report2. Consolidated Statements of Operation3. Consolidated Balance Sheets4. other accounting reports and notes.

Here, also, is the going concerning opinion. This is the opinion of the auditor as to the viability of the company. Look for "unqualified opinion" expressed by auditor. This means the auditor had no hesitations or reservations about the state of the company, and the opinion is without any qualifications (unconditional).

Five percent ownership

Five percent ownership refers to companies or individuals who hold at least 5% of the total value of the stock of a public company. They usually are founders of the company or large mutual fund companies, and because of how much stock they own, they usually have access to the board of directors of the company and hold significant sway over the company.

Five percent owners must also file Schedule 13d with the SEC.

External links

* [ Live RSS Feed]


* [ - 10-K]
* [ PDF of Form 10-K General Instructions]
* [ EDGAR Company Search (A portal to search for Companies' 10-Ks and other filings with the SEC)]

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