ABC Radio and Regional Content


ABC Radio and Regional Content

ABC Radio and Regional Content is the division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for radio output and regional content.

History

Origins

The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on November 13, 1923 under the call sign 2SB. Other stations in Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth and Hobart followed. cite web
title = Celebrating 100 Years of Radio - History of ABC Radio
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://abc.net.au/radio/celebrate100/history.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-03
] A licensing, scheme administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. cite web
title = The History of Radio in Australia
publisher = Australian Centre for the Moving Image
url = http://www.acmi.net.au/AIC/RADIO_HIST_AUS.html
accessdate = 2007-10-03
]

In 1924 the licencing system was changed. The Postmaster-General's Department collected all licence fees and broadcasters were funded as either A-Class or B-Class stations. A-Class stations received government funding and were able to take limited advertising, while B-Class stations received no government funding but could carry more advertising. By 1925 many of the A-Class stations were in financial difficulty.Fact|date=September 2007

A 1927 Royal Commission into wireless broadcasting recommended that radio licence fees be pooled to fund larger A-Class stations. cite web
title = Australian Broadcast History
work = Barry Mishkid
url = http://www.oldradio.com/archives/international/austral.html
accessdate = 2007-10-03
] The government established the National Broadcasting Service to take over the 12 A-Class licences as they came up for renewal from 1928. The original legislation permitted advertising, but this was removed from the Act before it came into effect. At the same time, the government created the Australian Broadcasting Company to supply programs to the new national broadcaster.

Initially the Postmaster-General's Department, which operated postal and telephone services, was responsible for operating the National Broadcasting Service, although this arrangement did not have universal political support. As a result, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established on July 1, 1932 to take over the Australian Broadcasting Company and run the National Broadcasting Service. cite web
title = About the ABC - The Birth of the ABC
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://abc.net.au/corp/history/hist2.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-01
] The ABC was to be based on the BBC model, funded primarily from listener license fees with some direct government grants.

The Australian Broadcasting Commission's original twelve radio stations were:
* 2FC Sydney
* 2BL Sydney
* 3AR Melbourne
* 3LO Melbourne
* 4QG Brisbane
* 5CL Adelaide
* 6WF Perth
* 7ZL Hobart
* 2NC Newcastle
* 2CO Corowa
* 4RK Rockhampton
* 5CK Crystal BrookThese formed the basis for the present-day ABC Local Radio and Radio National networks.

The opening-day program included the first ‘Children's Session’ with ‘Bobby Bluegum’, the first sports program, ‘Racing Notes’, with WA Ferry calling the Randwick races, ‘British Wireless News’, received by cable from London, weather, stock exchange and shipping news, the ABC Women's Association session (on ‘commonsense housekeeping’ and needlecraft), a talk on goldfish and their care, as well as ‘Morning Devotions’ and music. Conductor Sir Bernard Heinze was appointed part-time musical adviser to the ABC in 1934, while in 1937, the network was further expanded with the purchase of Brisbane’s 4BC. Two years later, the Commission began publishing the "ABC Weekly" - a radio magazine promoting the ABC's local radio, and later television, programs.cite web |title=ABC Weekly Publication |url=http://www.abctvgorehill.com.au/abchtm/pubs_abcweekly.htm |accessdate=2007-11-28 |publisher=ABC TV Gore Hill ]

Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy. The Australian broadcast radio spectrum at the time was made up of the ABC and the commercial sector.

During the broadcaster's first decades, programs generally consisted of music, news and current affairs, sport, drama, children's educational supplements and school broadcasts. Because recording technology was still relatively primitive, all ABC programs (including music) were broadcast live until 1935, when the first disc-based recorder was installed at the Commission's Sydney studios. For this purpose, the ABC established broadcasting orchestras in each state, and in some centres employed choruses and dance bands.

Amongst the other early programs were the stations' famous 'synthetic' cricket broadcasts - when tests were played in England, commentators in the ABC's Sydney studios used cables from London and sound effects to recreate the match in play. In addition, all 38 of Shakespeare's plays were performed live between 1936 and 1938. Local drama was also produced, with a competition for plays and sketches from Australian authors held in 1934. Talks from prominent figures of the time such as King George V, Pope Pius XI, British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, German Chancellor Adolf Hitler and H.G. Wells were also broadcast.

By 1933 regular program relays were in place between the ABC's stations in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth - it was not until 1936 that Hobart was connected with the mainland, through a cable under the Bass Strait. News bulletins, however, continued to be read in each state from local newspapers (by agreement with the Newspaper Proprietors Association). It was not until 1934 that the ABC hired its first journalist - the service continued to be expanded, with the appointment of a Federal News Editor in 1936, and in 1939 a Canberra correspondent to cover national politics.

World War II

During the Second World War, the ABC continued to recruit staff, including a greater proportion of women to replace men who had joined the armed forces.cite web
title = About the ABC - The 40s - The War Years
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://abc.net.au/corp/history/hist3.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-01
] The organisation established reporting and recording facilities in a number of overseas locations, including the Middle East, Greece and around the Asia-Pacific region. An early challenge to its independence came in June, 1940 when wartime censorship was imposed, meaning that the Department of Information (headed by Sir Keith Murdoch) took control of the ABC’s 7 p.m. nightly national news bulletin. This lasted until September, when control of the news was returned to the ABC after listeners expressed a preference for independent news presented by the Commission.

On January 7, 1941 the ABC revived the Children's Session as a national program, including the "Argonauts Club", which was first broadcast in 1933-34 in Melbourne. The Argonauts Club proved hugely popular with young Australians - by 1950 there were over 50,000 members, with 10,000 new members joining each year through 1950s. The Club encouraged children's contributions of writing, music, poetry and art, and became one of the ABC's most popular programs, running six days a week for 28 years.

Post-War

In December, 1945 rural affairs program "The Country Hour" premiered. cite web
title = About the ABC - The 50s - The Postwar Years
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://abc.net.au/corp/history/hist4.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-01
] Legislation passed in 1946 requiring the ABC to broadcast Parliament when in session - the broadcasts were put onto the interstate network, however the Commission frequently commented on the disruption this caused to its programming in its annual reports. The ABC was also required to 'secure its news for broadcasting purposes within the Commonwealth by its own staff, and abroad through such overseas news agencies and other overseas sources as it desired' (along with its own foreign correspondents). The news department continued to expand, and was inaugurated on June 1, 1947.

Changes made in the post-war moved 'serious' programming such as news, current affairs, and features — early forms of what became known as documentaries to the Commission's national network, with lighter entertainment programming left for the metropolitan stations. A Light Entertainment department was formed, to produce programs such as "ABC Hit Parade", "The Wilfrid Thomas Show", Bob Dyer's "Dude Ranch" and "The Village Glee".

Long-running regional affairs program The Country Hour began in December, 1945. The ABC's coverage of rural affairs was significantly enhanced by the deployment of journalists and 'extension officers' to major country areas. The increasing availability of landlines and teleprinters allowed the organisation to gather and broadcast news and other program material with much greater efficiency than in the previous two decades. By the this time, as many as 13 national news bulletins were broadcast daily.

1960-80s

In 1975, the ABC introduced a 24 hour-a-day AM rock station in Sydney, 2JJ (Double Jay), which was eventually expanded into the national Triple J FM network.cite web
title = About the ABC - The 60s and 70s
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://abc.net.au/corp/history/hist5.htm
accessdate =
] A classical music network was established a year later on the FM band, broadcasting from Adelaide. It was initially known as ABC-FM - referring both to its 'fine music' programming and radio frequency.

The "Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983" cite web
title = Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983
publisher = Attorney-General's Department
url = http://scaleplus.law.gov.au/html/pasteact/0/43/top.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-01
] cite book |last=Inglis |first=Kenneth Stanley |title=Whose ABC? The Australian Broadcasting Corporation 1983-2006 |year=2006 |publisher=Black Inc. |location=Melbourne, Victoria |isbn=1-86395-189-X ] changed the name of the organisation from the "Australian Broadcasting Commission" to the "Australian Broadcasting Corporation" effective 1 July 1983.Fact|date=June 2008 At the same time, television and radio operations were split into two separate divisions, with an overhaul of management, finance, property and engineering undertaken. cite web
title = About the ABC - The 80s
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://abc.net.au/corp/history/hist6.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-01
]

In 1981 ABC Radio began carrying Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander broadcasts in Alice Springs and later Northern Queensland, while at the same time comedy and social history units were set up, and news and current affairs output expanded.

A new Concert Music department was formed in 1985 to coordinate the corporation's six symphony orchestras, which in turn received a greater level of autonomy in order to better respond to local needs. Open-air free concerts and tours, educational activities, and joint ventures with other music groups were undertaken at the time to expand the Orchestras' audience reach.

ABC Radio was restructured significantly in 1985 - Radio One became the Metropolitan network, while Radio 2 became known as Radio National (callsigns, however, were not standardised until 1990). New programs such as "The World Today", "Australia All Over", and "The Coodabeen Champions" were introduced, while ABC-FM established an Australian Music Unit in 1989. Radio Australia began to focus on the Asia-Pacific region, with coverage targeted at the south west and central Pacfic, south-east Asia, and north Asia. Radio Australia also carried more news coverage, with special broadcasts during the 1988 Fiji coup, Tianmen Square massacre, and the First Gulf War.

A government initiative undertaken in 1987 known as the Second Regional Radio Network established nineteen new studios in regional areas (with an additional sixteen upgraded), as well as approximately 300 additional transmitters. At the same time, Radio National and ABC-FM were expanded into these areas. A year later, the Parliamentary and News Network was established to carry the ABC's mandatory Parliamentary broadcasts on eight transmitters in each state capital as well as Newcastle, Canberra, and Darwin.

1990s

Increasing pressure throughout the 1980sFact|date=September 2007 led the ABC to divest its orchestras in 1990. They formed Symphony Australia, an umbrella organisation that coordinates the now independent state-based orchestras (still owned by the ABC). cite web
title = About the ABC - The 90s
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://abc.net.au/corp/history/hist7.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-01
] The Sydney Symphony Orchestra was the first to be corporatised in 1996 when Sydney Symphony Orchestra Holdings Pty Ltd was formed.

During this period he ABC set in motion plans to consolidate its properties and buildings in Sydney and Melbourne into single sites in each city. It was not until 1991, however that the corporation's Sydney radio and orchestral operations moved to a new building built by Leighton Holdings [ [http://www.leighton.com.au/about_us/history/history.html Leighton Holdings History] ] on a single site in the inner-city suburb of Ultimo. In Melbourne, the ABC Southbank Centre was completed in 1994, and now houses the radio division in Victoria as well as the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra.

By the early 1990s, all major ABC broadcasting outlets moved to 24 hour-a-day operation, while regional radio coverage in Australia was extended with 80 new transmitters. Live television broadcasts of selected parliamentary sessions started in 1990. ABC NewsRadio, a continuous news network broadcast on the Parliamentary and News Network when parliament is not sitting, was launched on October 5, 1996.

Trials for digital radio began in the 1990s, using the popular Eureka 147 standard. At the same time, the majority of operations were upgraded to fully digitised systems for program playout and storage, as well as a word processing system adapted specifically for the needs of the division's news services.

ABC-FM relaunched in 1994 as ABC Classic FM, accompanied by major changes to the station's music and programming. In 1995, D-Cart digital technology developed by ABC Radio attracted worldwide interest and was sold to European, North American and Asian markets. The ABC used D-Radio, the first fully digital audio system, for Triple J.

2000s

Throughout the 2000s, ABC Radio continued to upgrade its studio and transmitter facilities. cite web
title = About the ABC - 2000s - A New Century
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://abc.net.au/corp/history/hist8.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-01
] The ABC attracted large audiences for its non-commercial radio coverage of the 2000 Summer Olympics, with a range of programming across its various networks. All networks celebrated 100 years of radio in 2001 with special broadcasts marking the event and a limited edition CD released, with highlights of the ABC's output since 1932.

ABC NewsRadio began to continue its news programming online while its radio network broadcast parliament in 2002 - amongst the first of the corporation's radio networks to offer live, exclusive, streaming online. The service also expanded into the Gold Coast - the first new coverage area for the network in five years.

A high incidence of breast cancer in female staff working at the ABC's offices in Brisbane led to the closure of the site, based in Toowong, on December 21, 2006. Fourteen women were diagnosed with the disease in a period spanning 1994 to 2007.cite news |title=14th cancer linked to ABC studio |url=http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,,22065770-7582,00.html?from=public_rss |date=2007-03-13 |publisher=The Australian |author=Tony Koch |first=Tony|last=Koch|accessdate=2007-10-09 ] A progress report released in March, 2007, by an independent panel formed to investigate the occurrences found that the rate of occurrence for breast cancer at the offices was 11 times higher than elsewhere.cite news |title=ABC cancer cluster still a mystery |url=http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,21411738-7582,00.html |date=2007-03-20 |publisher=The Australian |author=Michael Bodey |first=Michael|last=Bodey|accessdate=2007-10-09 ]

Since the closure of the site, the ABC's Brisbane television and radio operations were moved to alternate locations around the city. Managing Director Mark Scott announced in August, 2007 that new studios would be built on the site, following the final release of the Review and Scientific Investigation Panel's report.cite press release |title=New Studies to be completed on ABC Toowong site |url=http://www.abc.net.au/corp/pubs/media/s1717370.htm |date=2007-08-17 |accessdate=2007-10-09 |publisher=Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]

tations

National radio networks

The ABC operates several national radio networks within Australia:
* Radio National
* Classic FM
* Triple J
* ABC NewsRadio

Radio Australia is available on shortwave within the country, however it is targeted at audiences in the Asia-Pacific region. It falls under the International division.

Local radio

In addition there are several ABC Local Radio stations - the main capital city stations are:
*702 ABC Sydney (2BL)
*774 ABC Melbourne (3LO)
*612 ABC Brisbane (4QR)
*891 ABC Adelaide (5AN)
*720 ABC Perth (6WF)
*936 ABC Hobart (7ZR)
*666 ABC Canberra (2CN)
*105.7 ABC Darwin (8DDD)

References

ee also

* Australian Broadcasting Corporation


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