Functional psychology

Functional psychology

Functional psychology or functionalism refers to a general psychological approach that views mental life and behavior in terms of active adaptation to the person's environment [Gary R. VandenBos, ed., "APA Dictionary of Psychology" (2006). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association] . As such, it provides the general basis for developing psychological theories not readily testable in controlled experiments and for applied psychology.

History

Functionalism was a position taken opposing the prevailing structuralism of the end of the 19th century in psychology. Wilhelm Wundt, the leading structuralist, gave psychology its first definition as a science as the study of mental experience, of consciousness, to be studied by trained introspection. See History of psychology#Early American Psychology.

William James, John Dewey, George Herbert Mead, Harvey A. Carr, and especially James Rowland Angell were the leading exponents of the functionalist point of view at the University of Chicago. Another group at Columbia, led by James McKeen Cattell, Edward L. Thorndike, and Robert S. Woodworth, were also called functionalist and shared some of the views of the Chicago school. Egon Brunswik represents a more recent, but Continental, version. The functionalists retained an emphasis on conscious experience.

Behaviorists also rejected the methodology of introspection but criticized functionalism because it was not grounded in controlled experiments and its theories provided little predictive power. Skinner was a pioneer of behaviorism. He did not think that aspects of the mind had any impact on behavior, for he viewed behavior simply as a learned response to an external stimulus.

Contemporary descendants

Evolutionary psychology is founded on the view that the function of all psychological phenomena in human evolution is a necessary perspective to their understanding. Even the project of studying the evolutionary functions of consciousness is now an active field of study.

References

Further reading

* John R. Shook and Andrew Backe (eds.) "The Chicago School of Functionalism" Thoemmes Press, 2003 - facsimiles of source documents in Functional Psychology (3 vols.) ISBN 1855068648

ee also

* Functionalism (philosophy of mind)

External links

* [http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Calkins/reconciliation.htm Mary Calkins (1906) "A Reconciliation Between Structural And Functional Psychology "]
* [http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Angell/functional.htm James R. Angell (1907) "The Province of Functional Psychology"]
* [http://www.brocku.ca/MeadProject/Angell/Angell_1906/Angell_1906_00.html James R. Angell (1906), "Psychology: An Introductory Study of the Structure and Function of Human Consciousness"]

functualism vs structualism>

an easy way to compare the differnce between structualism and functualism is by taking car for example the structualist would look at each part of the car individually and how its job contributes to making the car work. whereas the functualist would ask how and why ? the car works together as one whole


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • functional psychology — noun : functionalism 1 …   Useful english dictionary

  • Функциональная психология (functional psychology) — Знаковым событием в оформлении Ф. п. явилась публикация труда Уильяма Джемса «Принципы психологии» (The Principles of Psychology). Данное Джемсом определение психологии как науки о функциях сознания (включ. подсознательные процессы) быстро… …   Психологическая энциклопедия

  • Functional fixedness — is a cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used. The concept of functional fixedness originated in Gestalt Psychology, a movement in psychology that emphasizes holistic processing. Karl Duncker …   Wikipedia

  • Psychology — (from Greek gr. ψῡχή, psȳkhē , breath, life, soul ; and gr. λογία, logia ) is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. Psychologists study such phenomena as perception, cognition, emotion …   Wikipedia

  • Psychology of religion — is the psychological study of religious experiences, beliefs, and activities.History William James U.S. psychologist and philosopher William James (1842 1910) is regarded by most psychologists of religion as the founder of the field. He served as …   Wikipedia

  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging — Functional MRI or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a type of specialized MRI scan. It measures the haemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. It is one of the most… …   Wikipedia

  • Functional analysis (psychology) — Functional analysis in behavioral psychology is the application of the laws of operant conditioning to establish the relationships between stimuli and responses. To establish the function of a behavior, one typically examines the three term… …   Wikipedia

  • Functional neuroimaging — is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions. It is primarily used as a research tool in… …   Wikipedia

  • Functional Analytic Psychotherapy — (FAP) is an approach to clinical psychotherapy that uses a Radical Behaviorist position informed by B.F. Skinner s analysis of Verbal Behavior. Although sufficient for use alone, this approach is offered as something that may be practiced in… …   Wikipedia

  • functional — In addition to its special meanings in medicine and psychology, the primary meanings of functional are (1) ‘designed or intended to be practical rather than attractive’, a synonym of utilitarian, and (2) ‘having a function, working’. In the 1990s …   Modern English usage


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»