Hawaiian State Grappling Championships.

Grappling refers to techniques, maneuvers, and counters applied to an opponent in order to gain a physical advantage, such as improving relative position, escaping, submitting, or injury to the opponent. Grappling is a general term that covers techniques used in many disciplines, styles and martial arts that are practiced both as combat sports and for self defense. Grappling does not typically include striking or most commonly the use of weapons, however some grappling disciplines teach tactics that include strikes and weapons either alongside grappling or as part of it.[1]


Types of Technique

Grappling techniques can be broadly subdivided into Clinch fighting; Takedowns and Throws; Submission holds and Pinning or Controlling Techniques; and Sweeps, Reversals, Turnovers, and Escapes.

  • Clinching, or clinch work, takes place with both competitors on their feet using various clinch holds applied to the upper body of the opponent. Clinch work is generally used to set up or defend against throws or takedowns.
  • Takedowns A takedown is used by one grappler to manipulate his or her opponent from a position where both are initially standing, to a position on the ground. The grappler completing the takedown aims to end on top of the opponent in a position of relative control.
  • Throws: A throw is a technique in which one grappler lifts or off-balances his or her opponent and maneuvers him or her forcefully through the air or to the ground. The purpose of throws varies among the different disciplines of grappling with some emphasizing throws with the potential to incapacitate the opponent, while leaving the thrower standing, or to gain a takedown or controlling position.
  • Submission holds: There are generally two types of submission holds: those that would potentially strangle or suffocate an opponent (chokes), and those that would potentially cause injury to a joint or other body part (locks). In sport grappling, a competitor is expected to submit, either verbally or by tapping the opponent, to admit defeat when he is caught in a submission hold that he or she cannot escape. Competitors who refuse to "tap out" risk unconsciousness or serious injury.
  • Pinning or Controlling Techniques: A pin involves holding an opponent on his or her back in a position where he or she is unable to attack. In some styles of competitive grappling a pin is an instant victory, and in other styles it is considered a dominant position that is rewarded with points. Other controlling techniques are used to hold an opponent face down on the ground or on all fours in order to prevent an escape or attack.
  • Escapes: In a general sense, an escape is accomplished by maneuvering out of danger or from an inferior position; for example when a grappler who is underneath side control is able to moves to guard or gets back to their feet or when a grappler is able to maneuver out of a submission attempt and back to a position where he or she is no longer in immediate danger of being submitted.
  • Turnovers: used to maneuver an opponent who is on all fours or flat on their stomach to their back, in order to score points, prepare for a pin or in order to gain a more dominant position.
  • Reversals or Sweeps: These occur when a grappler who was underneath his or her opponent on the ground is able to maneuver so that he or she gains a top position over his opponent.


The degree to which grappling is utilized in different fighting systems varies. Some systems, such as amateur wrestling, submission wrestling, judo, sumo, and Brazilian jiu-jitsu are exclusively grappling arts and do not allow striking.[2]

Two wrestlers engaging.

Grappling is used often in most martial arts and combat sports; boxing and kickboxing however do not use grappling, usually for the sake of focusing on other aspects of combat such as punching, kicking or mêlée weapons. Opponents in these types of matches, however, still grapple with each other occasionally when fatigued or in pain; when this occurs, the referee will step in and restart the match, sometimes giving a warning to one or both of the fighters. Examples of these include boxing, kickboxing, taekwondo, karate, and fencing. While prolonged grappling in muay Thai will result in a separation of the competitors, the art extensively uses the clinch hold known as a double collar tie.

Grappling techniques and defenses to grappling techniques are also considered important in self-defense applications and in law enforcement. The most common grappling techniques taught for self defense are escapes from holds and application of pain compliance techniques.

Grappling can be trained for self defense, sport, and mixed martial arts (MMA) competition.

Stand-up grappling

Stand-up grappling or sometimes clinching, is arguably an integral part of all grappling and clinch fighting arts, considering that two combatants generally start fighting from a stand-up position. The aim of stand-up grappling varies according to the martial arts or combat sports in question. Defensive stand-up grappling concerns itself with pain-compliance holds and escapes from possible grappling holds applied by an opponent, while offensive grappling techniques include submission holds, trapping, takedowns and throws, all of which can be used to inflict serious damage, or to move the fight to the ground. Stand-up grappling can also be used both offensively and defensively in combination with striking, either to prevent the opponent from obtaining sufficient distance to strike effectively, or to bring the opponent close to apply, for instance, knee strikes such as in Muay Thai.

In combat sports, stand-up grappling usually revolves around successful takedowns and throws. In some sports such as glima, the fight is over once one of the opponents has fallen down. In others, the fight may continue on the ground until some other condition (such as a submission hold or pin) is met.

In judo, the aim of ne-waza is to obtain a chokehold, joint lock or to pin the opponent.

Ground grappling

Ground grappling refers to all the grappling techniques that are applied while the grapplers are no longer in a standing position. A large part of most martial arts and combat sports which feature ground grappling is positioning and obtaining a dominant position. A dominant position (usually on top) allows the dominant grappler a variety of options, including: attempting to escape by standing up, obtaining a pin or hold-down to control and exhaust the opponent, executing a submission hold, or striking the opponent. The bottom grappler is, on the other hand, concerned with escaping the situation and improving his position, typically by using a sweep or reversal. In some disciplines, especially those where the guard is used, the bottom grappler may also be able to finish the fight from the bottom by a submission hold.


When unskilled fighters get embroiled in combat, a common reaction is to grab the opponent in an attempt to slow the situation down by holding them still, resulting in an unsystematic struggle that relies on brute force. A skilled fighter, in contrast, can perform takedowns as a way of progressing to a superior position such as a mount or side control, or using clinch holds and ground positions to set up strikes, choke holds, and joint locks. A grappler who has been taken down to the ground can use defensive positions such as the guard, which protects against being mounted or attacked. If a grappler is strong and can utilize leverage well, a takedown or throw itself can be a form of dix; the impact can render an opponent unconscious. On the other hand, grappling also offers the possibility of controlling an opponent without injuring them. For this reason, most police staff receive some training in grappling.[citation needed] Likewise, grappling sports have been devised so that their participants can compete using full physical effort without injuring their opponents.

Grappling is called dumog in Eskrima. The term chin na in Chinese martial arts deals with the use of grappling to achieve submission or incapacitation of the opponent (these may involve the use of acupressure points). Some Chinese martial arts, aikido and some eskrima systems—as well as medieval and Renaissance European martial arts—practice grappling while one or both participants is armed. This practice is significantly more dangerous than unarmed grappling and generally requires a great deal of training.

Types of grappling

There are many different regional styles of grappling around the world that are practised within a limited geographic area or country. Other grappling styles like Shoot wrestling, Catch wrestling, FILA Grappling, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Judo, luta livre esportiva, Sambo and several types of wrestling including Freestyle, Greco-Roman have gained global popularity. Judo, Freestyle Wrestling, and Greco-Roman Wrestling are Olympic Sports while Brazilian Jiu-jitsu and Sambo have their own World Championship Competitions. Other known grappling-oriented systems are luta luta livre esportiva, shuai jiao, malla-yuddha, aikido, hapkido, and catch wrestling.

In these arts, the object is either to take down and pin the opponent, or to catch the adversary in a specialized chokehold or joint lock which forces him or her to submit and admit defeat or be rendered helpless (unconscious or broken limbs). There are two forms of dress for grappling that dictate pace and style of action: with a jacket, such as a gi[3] or kurtka, and without. The jacket, or "gi", form most often utilizes grips on the cloth to control the opponent's body, while the "no-gi" form emphasizes body control of the torso and head using only the natural holds provided by the body. The use of a jacket is compulsory in judo competition, sambo competition, and most Brazilian jiu-jitsu competition, as well as a variety of folk wrestling styles around the world. Jackets are not used in many forms of wrestling, such as Olympic Freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling.

Grappling techniques are also used in mixed martial arts along with striking techniques, including using strikes to set up grappling techniques and vice-versa. Some martial artists, such as the Dog Brothers, combine grappling with the use of weapons.


FILA defines grappling as a wrestling style — also called "submission wrestling" or "submission grappling" — which consists of controlling the opponent without using striking, in standing position or on the ground after a throw.[4]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Krauss, Erich (1 December 2004). Warriors of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. U.S.: Citadel Press Inc.,. ISBN 0806526572. 
  3. ^ " class="smarterwiki-linkify">
  4. ^ International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

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  • Grappling — Grapple Grap ple, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Grappled}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Grappling}.] [F. grappiller, OF. graypil the grapple of a ship, fr. graper to pluck, prop., to seize, clutch; of German origin. See {Grape}.] 1. To seize; to lay fast hold of; to… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • grappling — noun Date: 1582 1. grapnel 2. grappling hook …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • grappling — noun 1. the act of engaging in close hand to hand combat (Freq. 2) they had a fierce wrestle we watched his grappling and wrestling with the bully • Syn: ↑wrestle, ↑wrestling, ↑grapple, ↑hand to hand struggle …   Useful english dictionary

  • grappling — /grap ling/, n. grapnel. [1590 1600; GRAPPLE + ING1] * * * …   Universalium

  • grappling — noun An act in which something is grappled or grappled with …   Wiktionary

  • grappling — n. struggling; wrestling; attacking; gripping and holding (Wrestling) grap·ple || græpl n. wrestling, struggling; scuffle, fist fight; grip, hand hold (Wrestling) v. struggle with; wrestle; attack; grip and hold (Wrestling) …   English contemporary dictionary

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