Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp


Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Charles Frederick
Reign 19 July 1702 - 18 June 1739
(&1000000000000003600000036 years, &10000000000000334000000334 days)
Spouse Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia
Issue
Peter III of Russia
Father Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Mother Hedvig Sophia of Sweden
Born 30 April 1700(1700-04-30)
Died 18 June 1739(1739-06-18) (aged 39)
Charles Frederick's grave at Bordesholm

Duke Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp (German: Karl Friedrich, Herzog zu Holstein-Gottorp) (30 April 1700 – 18 June 1739) was the son of Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife, Hedvig Sophia, daughter of King Charles XI of Sweden. He became reigning duke in infancy, upon his father's death in 1702, and all his life was a legitimate claimant to the throne of Sweden, as pro forma heir to Charles XII.

Duke Charles Frederick was under the regency of his mother, with whom he resided in Stockholm. Actual daily rule of the duchy was left to administrators.

Danish troops had ravaged the duke's lands during the Great Northern War and conquered its northern portions, including the ancestral seat of the dynasty of Holstein-Gottorp, Gottorp castle.

Upon the death in 1718 of his maternal uncle, Charles XII of Sweden, Duke Charles Frederick was presented as claimant to the throne. However, his aunt Ulrika Eleonora the Younger (1688–1741) managed to wrest the throne for herself, claiming that her elder sister had not "acquired the consent of the Parliamentary Estates" for her marriage to his father, according to laws of succession laid down in Norrköpings arvförening. The duke's party asserted that the absolute monarchy in Sweden, which his grandfather King Charles XI had created, made that marriage clause irrelevant.

Losing out on this, Charles Frederick withdrew from Sweden, eventually settling in Russia. Afterward, the so-called Holsteiner Party in Sweden continued to advance Charles Frederick's claims. The party made preparations and awaited the childless Ulrika Eleonora's death, but Charles Frederick died before his aunt and left his claims to his infant son. By that time Sweden had enacted new laws of succession, however, that specifically excluded Charles Frederick and his heirs due to their Russian politics. His first cousin Adolph Frederick, of his same Oldenburg dynasty, was elected Crown Prince of Sweden.

In 1720, Sweden and Denmark-Norway concluded the Treaty of Frederiksborg, in which Sweden pledged to cease its support of Holstein-Gottorp. Duke Charles Frederick opposed the treaty, made by a Swedish government which he regarded as rebellious against his own right to the Swedish succession; the treaty also made virtually impossible the regaining of the lost northern part of his duchy, its lands in Schleswig. (This was to be a motivation for his son Peter in 1762, upon his Russian accession, to start preparations for the use of Russian troops to reconquer the lost lands from Denmark.)

Duke Charles Frederick was married to Anna Petrovna, Tsesarevna of Russia and elder daughter of Tsar Peter I and his peasant wife, Marta Skavronskaya (who would later become Empress Catherine I of Russia).

Charles Frederick, then commander of the palace guard in St. Petersburg, attempted to secure his wife's succession to the Russian upon the death in 1727 of her mother, the Empress Catherine I of Russia. His attempt failed, but the son of Duke Charles Frederick and Duchess Anna Petrovna, Charles Peter Ulrich (who succeeded as Duke of Holstein-Gottorp in 1739), eventually became Russian tsar in 1762, as Peter III.

Before a member of the family of Holstein-Gottorp was to sit on either the Swedish or the Russian throne, Duke Charles Frederick died in 1739 in the Saxon village of Rolfshagen. His grave is in the Cloister Church at Bordesholm.

Ancestors

Charles Frederick's ancestors in three generations
Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp Father:
Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Paternal Grandfather:
Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Marie Elisabeth of Saxony
Paternal Grandmother:
Frederikke Amalie of Denmark
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Frederick III of Denmark
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Mother:
Hedvig Sophia of Sweden
Maternal Grandfather:
Charles XI of Sweden
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp
Maternal Grandmother:
Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Frederick III of Denmark
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
House of Holstein-Gottorp
Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
Born: 30 April 1700 Died: 18 June 1739
Preceded by
Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp and his cousin
Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway
(in condominial rule)
Duke of Schleswig
condominial rule with his father's paternal cousin Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway, until the latter deposed Charles Frederick as Duke of Schleswig in 1713 (with legal effect as of 1720)

1702–1713
under guardianship due to minority
Succeeded by
Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway
(continued as the sole duke of Schleswig)
Duke of Holstein
condominial rule with his father's paternal cousin Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway (till 1730) and thereafter with the latter's son Christian VI

1702–1739
until 1718 under guardianship due to minority
Succeeded by
Charles Peter Ulrich and
Christian VI of Denmark and Norway
(in condominial rule)

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