- Alexander Selkirk
Alexander Selkirk, born Alexander Selcraig (1676 – 13 December 1721), was a Scottish sailor who spent four years as a
castawayon an uninhabited island.
It is probable that his travails provided the inspiration for
Daniel Defoe's novel " Robinson Crusoe".
The son of a shoemaker and tanner in
Lower Largo, Fife, Scotland, Selkirk was born in 1676. In his youth he displayed a quarrelsome and unruly disposition. Summoned on 27 August 1695 before the Kirk Sessionfor his "undecent carriage" (indecent behaviour) in church, he "did not compear [appear] , having gone away to þe [the] sea: this business is continued till his return" ( quotationin original spelling).
At an early period he was engaged in
buccaneerexpeditions to the South Seasand in 1703 joined in with the expedition of famed privateerand explorer William Dampier. While Dampier was captain of the "St. George," Selkirk served on the galleon"Cinque Ports", the "St. George" 's companion, as a sailing masterserving under Thomas Stradling.
In October 1704, after the ships had parted ways because of a fight between Stradling and Dampier, the "Cinque Ports" was brought by Stradling to the uninhabited
archipelagoof Juan Fernández for a mid-expedition restocking of supplies and fresh water. Selkirk had grave concerns by this time about the seaworthiness of this vessel (the "Cinque Ports," indeed, later foundered, losing most of its hands). He tried to convince some of his crewmates to desert with him, remaining on the island; he was counting on an impending visit by another ship. No one else agreed to come along with him. Stradling, who was tired of Selkirk's troublemaking, declared that he would grant him his wish and leave him alone on Juan Fernández. Selkirk promptly regretted his decision. He chased and called after the boat, to no avail. Selkirk lived the next four years and four months without any human company. All he had brought with him was a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bibleand some clothing.
Life on the island
Hearing strange sounds from the inland, which he feared were dangerous beasts, Selkirk remained at first along the shoreline. During this time he camped in a small cave, ate
shellfishand scanned the ocean daily for rescue, suffering all the while from loneliness, misery and remorse. Hordes of raucous sea lions, gathering on the beach for the mating season, eventually drove him to the island's interior. Once there, his way of life took a turn for the better. More foods were now available: feral goats, introduced by earlier sailors, provided him meatand milk; wild turnips, cabbage, and black pepperberries offered him variety and spice. Although rats would attack him at night, he was able, by domesticating and living near feral cats, to sleep soundly and in safety. (After his rescue, he was to live with cats in Lower Largo.)
Selkirk proved resourceful in using equipment from the ship as well as materials that were native to the island. He built two huts out of
pimento trees. He used his musket to hunt goats and his knife to clean their carcasses. As his gunpowder dwindled, he had to chase prey on foot. During one such chase he was badly injured when he tumbled from a cliff, lying unconscious for about a day. (His prey had cushioned his fall, sparing him a broken back.)Rodgers, Woodes, "Providence display’d, or a very surprising account of one", p. 6.] He read from the Biblefrequently, finding it a comfort to him in his condition and a mainstay for his English.
When Selkirk's clothes wore out, he made new garments from goatskin, using a nail for sewing. The lessons he had learned as a child from his father, a tanner, helped him greatly during his stay on the island. As his
shoes became unusable, he had no need to make new ones, since his toughened, callused feet made protection unnecessary. He forged a new knife out of barrel rings left on the beach.
His long-anticipated rescue occurred on 2 February 1709 by way of the "Duke," a privateering ship piloted by the above-mentioned
William Dampier. Selkirk was discovered by the "Duke" 's captain, Woodes Rogers, who referred to him as Governor of the island. Now rescued, he was almost incoherent in his joy. The agile Selkirk, catching two or three goats a day, helped restore the health of Rogers' men. Rogers eventually made Selkirk his mate, giving him independent command of one of his ships. Rogers' "A cruising voyage round the world: first to the South-Sea, thence to the East-Indies, and homewards by the Cape of Good Hope" was published in 1712 and included an account of Selkirk's ordeal.
Richard Steeleinterviewed Selkirk about his adventures and wrote a much-read article about him in "The Englishman." [http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/novel_18c/defoe/selkirk.html#cooke Article, dated 1 December 1713.] ]
Early in 1717 Selkirk returned to Lower Largo but stayed only a few months. There he met Sophia Bruce, a sixteen-year-old dairymaid. They eloped to
Londonbut apparently did not marry. In March 1717 he again went off to sea. While on a visit to Plymouth, he married a widowed innkeeper. According to the ship's log, Selkirk died at 8 p.m. on 13 December 1721 while serving as a lieutenanton board the Royal ship "Weymouth." He probably succumbed to the yellow feverwhich had devastated the voyage. He was buried at sea off the west coast of Africa.
In 1863, the crew of HMS Topaze placed a bronze tablet on a spot called Selkirk's lookout on a hill of the island in memory of his stay. [Kraske (2005), p.100] On 1 January 1966 Selkirk's island was officially renamed
Robinson Crusoe Island. At the same time, the most western island of the Juan Fernández Islandswas renamed Alejandro Selkirk Islandalthough Selkirk probably never saw that island (97 miles west).
Archaeological finding of the camp of Selkirk
Around 2000 an expedition led by the Japanese Daisuke Takahashi, searching for Selkirk's camp on the island, found a part of an early 18th (or late 17th) century nautical instrument that almost certainly belonged to Selkirk. [Richard Lloyd Parry (September 17, 2005). " [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-1783811,00.html 'In an ill hour, I went on board a ship bound for London . . .'] ", "
The Times". Retrieved on 2008-07-14.]
Selkirk in Other Books
Allan Coleand Chris Bunch's Sten science fiction series, Book Two, " The Wolf Worlds", the Scottish character Alex bemoans their predicament after crash landing; 'A slackit way f'r a mon,' Alex mourned to himself. 'Ah dinnae ken Ah'd ever be Alex Selkirk.'
* Selkirk is mentioned in "Sailing Alone Around The World" by
Joshua Slocum. During his stay on the Juan Fernández Islands, Slocum runs across a marker commemorating Selkirk's stay.
Charles Dickensused Selkirk as a simile in Chapter Two of The Pickwick Papers: "Colonel Builder and Sir Thomas Clubber exchanged snuff–boxes, and looked very much like a pair of Alexander Selkirks — ‘Monarchs of all they surveyed.’"
* In his poem 'Inniskeen Road: July Evening', the poet
Patrick Kavanaghlikens his loneliness on the road to that of Selkirk:
"Oh, Alexander Selkirk knew the plight
"Of being king and government and nation.
"A road, a mile of kingdom, I am king
"Of banks and stones and every blooming thing."
* Selcraig, B. (July 2005). "The Real Robinson Crusoe". "
* Robert Kraske. (2005). Marooned: The Strange But True Adventures of Alexander Selkirk. Clarion Books. ISBN 0618568433.
* Diana Souhami, "Selkirk's Island: The True and Strange Adventures of the Real Robinson Crusoe", (2001) ISBN 0-15-100526-5
* Daisuke Takahashi, "In Search of Robinson Crusoe", (2002) ISBN 0-8154-1200-2
* [http://www.ini.unizh.ch/~tobi/fun/alex/alex.php Account of a trip to Selkirk's Island]
* [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-1783811,00.html "Site of Selkirk's camp identified"] , from
The Times(London), 17 September 2005.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=DSARmYz3DkYC&printsec=titlepage "The life and adventures of Alexander Selkirk"] by John Howell (1829) from Google Books
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Look at other dictionaries:
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Alexander Selcraig — Alexander Selkirk (oder Selcraig) (* 1676 in Lower Largo, Fife, Schottland; † 13. Dezember 1721) war ein schottischer Seefahrer und Abenteurer. Er gilt gemeinhin als Vorbild für Daniel Defoes Figur Robinson Crusoe aus dem gleichnamigen Roman… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Selkirk — This famous Scottish surname is locational and originates from the town of Selkirk. Recorded in the surname spellings of Selcraig, Selkrig and the more popular Selkirk, it is one of the earliest of Scottish hereditary surnames. Locational… … Surnames reference
Alexander Selcraig — noun Scottish sailor who was put ashore on a deserted island off the coast of Chile for five years (providing the basis for Daniel Defoe s novel about Robinson Crusoe) (1676 1721) • Syn: ↑Selkirk, ↑Selcraig, ↑Alexander Selkirk • Instance… … Useful english dictionary
Selkirk — noun Scottish sailor who was put ashore on a deserted island off the coast of Chile for five years (providing the basis for Daniel Defoe s novel about Robinson Crusoe) (1676 1721) • Syn: ↑Selcraig, ↑Alexander Selkirk, ↑Alexander Selcraig •… … Useful english dictionary