- United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Infobox Government agency
agency_name = United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
formed = 1795
employees = approx 850
chief1_name = Mike Robinson
chief1_position = Chief Executive
chief2_name = Rear Admiral Ian Moncrieff
chief2_position = Deputy Chief Executive (Hydrography)
chief3_name = Michael Cauter
chief3_position = Deputy Chief Executive (Corporate)
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
website = http://www.ukho.gov.uk/
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (or UKHO) is an organisation within the UK government responsible for providing
navigational and other hydrographic information for national, civil and defence requirements. The UKHO is located in Taunton, Somerseton Admiralty Way and has a workforce of approximately 1000 staff.
The office is an
executive agencyof the Ministry of Defence and is directly responsible to the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State and Minister for Veterans. The current minister is Derek Twigg, MP. The Chief Executive of the agency is Mike Robinson, appointed in 2006. [cite web |url=http://nms.ukho.gov.uk/content/corpAttachments/press_releases/New%20CEO02-06-06.pdf |format=PDF |title=Mike Robinson appointed Chief Executive of UKHO |date=5 June 2006 |publisher=UKHO |work=www.ukho.gov.uk |accessdate=2006-11-15] The agency is self-funding and has Trading Fundstatus and so protects the copyright in its publications.
Rear Admiral Ian Moncrieff is the UK National Hydrographer and Deputy Chief Executive (Hydrography).
The Admiralty's first Hydrographer was
Alexander Dalrymple, appointed in 1795 on the order of King George III and in the next year the existing charts were brought together and catalogued. The first chart the Admiralty produced (of Quiberon Bay in Brittany) did not appear until 1800.
Dalrymple was succeeded on his death in 1808 by Captain Thomas Hurd, under whose stewardship the department was given permission to sell charts to the public. Hurd oversaw the first production of "Sailing Directions" in 1829 and the first catalogue in 1825 with 736 charts. Rear Admiral Sir W. Edward Parry was appointed Hydrographer in 1823 after his second expedition to discover a
Northwest Passage. In 1829, at the age of 55, Rear Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort became Hydrographer. During this time, he developed his eponymous Scale and saw the introduction of official tide tables in 1833 and the first "Notices to Mariners" in 1834. By the time of Beaufort's retirement in 1855, the Chart Catalogue listed 1,981 charts and 64,000 copies of them had been issued to the Royal Navy. [cite web |url=http://www.ukho.gov.uk/corp/History.asp |title=Charting the world for over 200 years |publisher=UKHO |work=www.ukho.gov.uk |accessdate=2006-11-15]
In the 1930s the collection of oceanographic and naval meteorological data started. At the start of the Second World War chart printing moved to Taunton but the main office did not move until 1968. Metrication of charts began in 1967 while digitisation started in the 1980s. "Admiralty Raster Chart Service" began to be produced in 1996 and in 2000 online services were started. In April 2008 the UKHO launched its AVCS (Admiralty Vector Chart Service) which aims to get round the inability of many smaller hydrographic offices to produce electronic charts by incorporating them into the Admiralty service.
Originally data was mainly collected using ordinary Royal Navy ships. In 1953, the first purpose-built survey vessel was launched; "HMS Vidal". [cite web |url=http://www.ukho.gov.uk/content/corpAttachments/Time%20Line%20Panel_1.pdf |format=PDF |title=Timeline of the UKHO |publisher=UKHO |work=www.ukho.gov.uk |accessdate=2006-11-15] The current ships form the "Hydrographic Squadron". The use of the
echo sounderand other electronic equipment in the 20th century saw a big increase in the quantity and quality of the data collected.
Public Records Act 1958, UKHO became an authorised 'place of deposit' which has given it the responsibility of maintaining its own archive. Its documents date from 1755. Its prime customer is the Royal Navyfor which it produces hydrographic, oceanographic and geophysical products and services. The UKHO also produces a range of outputs for the leisure market. It collects tidal information from around the world and publishes the "Admiralty Tide Tables" (in 4 volumes) and provides an online service called "Easytide".
* [http://www.ukho.gov.uk/corp/homePage.asp UKHO's official web site]
* [http://easytide.ukho.gov.uk Easytide] , UKHO ocean tide predictor
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/features/coast_sea/aboutukho.shtml UKHO information at the BBC Weather's web site]
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