- Swatantra Party
Swatantra Party ("swatantra" meaning 'free' or 'independent' in
Sanskrit) was a political partyin Indiafounded by Chakravarti Rajagopalachariin 1959. The party opposed the Nehruvian socialist of the Congress Party outlook by advocating free enterprise, opposing the so-called licence-permit Raj, and ending India's economic autarky by courting Western investment. In 1960 Rajaji and other Swatantra leaders wrote about why Swatantra Party had to be formed despite having worked closely with Nehru to obtain independence for India:
The [http://www.liberalpartyofindia.sabhlokcity.com/party/21prin.doc 21 principles of the Swatantra Party manifesto] were on broadly classical liberal linesFact|date=March 2007. Swatantra party became a significant force in some regions of India and became the single largest opposition party in the mid-1960s in Parliament with 44 seats in the Fourth Lok Sabha (1967-71). After Rajaji's death in 1972, it declined rapidly. It was also associated in the public mind with wealthy industrialists and former maharajas. The Swatantra experiment of liberalism ended in 1974 by merging with B.K.D. led by
Charan Singhan omnibus of left-wing, right-wing, and Hindu nationalist opponents of Congress Party rule.
* H.R.Pasricha. The Swatantra Party—Victory in Defeat. The Rajaji Foundation. 2002.
* Howard L. Erdman. India’s Swatantra Party. Public Affairs Vol 36, Issue 4, Winter 1963-1964, pp. 394-410.
* C. Rajagopalachari : [http://liberalpartyofindia.sabhlokcity.com/writers/rajaji1.html Save freedom] . Why Swatantra, 1960
Minoo Masani: [http://liberalpartyofindia.sabhlokcity.com/writers/masani1.html To provide A Democratic Alternative] . Why Swatantra, 1960
K.M. Munshi: [http://liberalpartyofindia.sabhlokcity.com/writers/munshi1.html To Restore Fundamental Rights] . Why Swatantra, 1960
N.G. Ranga: [http://liberalpartyofindia.sabhlokcity.com/writers/ranga1.html To Preserve Family Economy] . Why Swatantra, 1960
* A number of links at [http://www.liberalpartyofindia.sabhlokcity.com/party/political.html sabhlokcity.com]
* [http://www.rediff.com/news/oct/31raj2.htm Rediff On The NeT: Rajmohan Gandhi on C Rajagopalachari and the birth of the Swatantra Party]
* [http://iecolumnists.expressindia.com/full_column.php?content_id=75023 Revive the Swatantra Party]
* [http://indianeconomy.org/2005/09/29/minoo-masani-and-the-swatantra-party/ Minoo Masani And The Swatantra Party]
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