Gauss (unit)


Gauss (unit)

The gauss, abbreviated as G, is the cgs unit of measurement of a magnetic field B (which is also known as the "magnetic flux density", or the "magnetic induction"), named after the German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss. One gauss is defined as one maxwell per square centimeter; it equals 1×10−4 tesla. Because the tesla is so large in regards to everyday usage, it is common to see the strength of magnets reported in gauss.

Contents

Unit name and convention

This unit is named after Carl Friedrich Gauss. As with all units whose names are derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase ("G"), but when the unit is spelled out, it should always be written in lowercase ("gauss"), unless it begins a sentence.[1]

Units conversions

According to the centimeter gram second system of units (cgs), the gauss is the unit of magnetic field B, while the oersted is the unit of magnetizing field H. One tesla is equal to 104 gauss, and one ampere per meter is equal to 4π × 10−3 oersted.[2]

The units for magnetic flux Φ, which is the integral of magnetic field over an area, are the weber (Wb) in the SI and the maxwell (Mx) in the cgs system. The conversion factor is 108, since flux is the integral of field over an area, area having the units of the square of distance, thus 104 (magnetic field conversion factor) times the square of 102 (linear distance conversion factor, i.e., centimetres per meter).

Another unit conversion that may be useful is 1 gauss = 10−4 kg C−1 s−1.

Typical values

See also

References

  1. ^ Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (2006). The International System of Units (SI). 8th ed.. http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/si_brochure_8_en.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  2. ^ Hayt, Jr., William H. (1974). Engineering Electromagnetics, Third Edition. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-027390-1
  3. ^ "Medical Daily: First measurement of magnetic field in Earth's core". First measurement of magnetic field in Earth's core. Medical Daily. http://www.medicaldaily.com/news/20101217/4716/first-measurement-of-magnetic-field-in-earths-core.htm. Retrieved 2010-12-17. 
  4. ^ "How strong are magnets?". Experiments with magnets and our surroundings. Magcraft. http://www.coolmagnetman.com/magflux.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  5. ^ a b "Magnetars, Soft Gamma Repeaters and Very Strong Magnetic Fields". Robert C. Duncan, University of Texas at Austin. March 2003. http://solomon.as.utexas.edu/~duncan/magnetar.html#Epilog. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 

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