- Caxton, Cambridgeshire
infobox UK place
region=East of England
Caxton is a small rural village and
civil parishin South Cambridgeshire, England. It is 9 miles west of the county town of Cambridge. In 2001, the population of Caxton parish was 480 people. Caxton is most famous for the Caxton Gibbet.
The name Caxton is probably derived from 'farmstead of a man called Kakkr'. It was spelled "Caustone" in the 1086
Domesday book[Mills, A.D. (1998). A Dictionary of English Place-names. Second Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. p74. ISBN 0-19-280074-4] when 35 peasants lived there. It is probable that the village came into existence as a late Scandinavian settlement in a area of woodland. The use of the names 'weald' and 'wald' in the 12th century indicate the influence of woods.
What was the Roman
Ermine Street, now the A1198 road, bisects Caxton parish. The modern village has grown up around the road, although the church is a short distance south-west, along Gransden Road. There are also three medievalmoated sites further from the road: Caxton Moats, which has signs of Anglo-Saxonor Norman occupation; Caxton Pastures, south-west of Caxton Gibbet, which may have belonged to John of Caxton, a 13th century landowner; and Swansley, south-east of the gibbet. St Peter's Street, north and east of the church, may have been the centre of the original village. [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=66671 'Parishes: Caxton', A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 5 (1973), pp. 26-35. Date accessed: 27 July 2008] ]
The road provided passing trade; the market was held next to it and the Crown and George inns were built there. Parts of the Crown inn date from the 15th century and it was known by that name by 1545. Caxton benefitted from travellers passing through but highway robbers could also be a problem. The road became busier after the 16th century and a post office was opened at the Crown inn 'many years' before 1660. By the mid-18th century, Caxton post office was one of only two in the whole county.
After the end of the coaching era, Caxton declined. In 1863, a traveller described the village as "a small, rambling village, which looked as if it had not shaved and washed its face, and put on a clean shirt for a shocking length of time". Fires in 1896 and 1897 destroyed more than a dozen houses and, although the arrival of the motor car in the 1920s brought traffic back through the village, its former prosperity did not return. In 2004 a bypass was completed around Caxton to accommodate traffic for the newly-built
Cambourneto the north.
Caxton is represented on
South Cambridgeshire District Councilby three councillors for the Bourn electoral ward [ [http://www.scambs.gov.uk/CouncilAndDemocracy/Elections/newwards.htm South Cambridgeshire District Council: Electoral wards] ] and on Cambridgeshire County Councilby one councillor for the Bourn electoral division. [ [http://www2.cambridgeshire.gov.uk/db/council1.nsf/menus/councillors?OpenDocument Cambridgeshire County Council: Councillors] ] It is in the parliamentary constituency of South Cambridgeshire, represented at the House of Commons by Andrew Lansley. [ [http://findyourmp.parliament.uk/commons/l/ UK Government: Find your MP] ]
Caxton parish is 9 miles west of
Cambridge, 7 miles east of the town of St Neotsand 48 miles north of London. It stands on the A1198 ( Ermine Street, the Old North Road) between the villages of Papworth Everard, to the north, and Longstowe, to the south. Roads run from Caxton to the villages of Bourn and Great Gransden. [http://www.getamap.co.uk Ordnance Survey: www.getamap.co.uk] ] It ranges from 44 to 68 metres above sea level and the soil is clay with a blue gaultsubsoil. [http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/CAM/Caxton/index.html GENUKI: Caxton] ] Bourn Brook runs through Caxton, eventually joining the River Cam.
At the time of the 2001 census, the population of Caxton parish was 480 people. All residents were white and 72% described themselves as
Christian, with 27.8% either having no religion or stating none. [http://www.cambridgeshire.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/CCF889BD-ADD2-46BA-86D4-70561864138C/0/Caxton.pdf Cambridgeshire County Council: Parish Census Profiles] ] In 1881 the population was 129, and in 1921 the population had grown to 398.
Caxton Gibbetstands by the side of the A428 road, north of Caxton village. The roundabout at the junction of the A428 and A1198 is also known as Caxton Gibbet. [ [http://www.highways.gov.uk/roads/projects/4545.aspx Highways Agency: A428 Caxton Common to Hardwick Improvement] ]
A war memorial, commemorating Caxton men who died in the First and
Second World Wars, stands at the junction of Ermine Street, Bourn Road and Gransden Road. [ [http://www.roll-of-honour.org/Cambridgeshire/Caxton.html Roll of Honour: Caxton] ]
List of places in Cambridgeshire
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