Robert W. Holley


Robert W. Holley

Robert William Holley (January 28, 1922 – February 11, 1993) was an American biochemist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 for describing the structure of alanine transfer RNA, linking DNA and protein synthesis.

Holley was born in Urbana, Illinois, and graduated from Urbana High School in 1938. He went on to study chemistry at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, graduating in 1942 and commencing his PhD studies in organic chemistry at Cornell University. During World War II Holley spent two years working under Professor Vincent du Vigneaud at Cornell University Medical College, where he was involved in the first chemical synthesis of penicillin. Holley completed his PhD studies in 1947.

Following his graduate studies Holley remained associated with Cornell, he became an Assistant Professor of organic chemistry in 1948, and was appointed as Professor of Biochemistry in 1962. He began his research on RNA after spending a years sabbatical (1955 - 1956) studying with James F. Bonner at the California Institute of Technology.

Holley's research on RNA focused first on isolating transfer RNA (tRNA), and later on determining the sequence and structure of alanine tRNA, the molecule that incorporates the amino acid alanine into proteins. Holley's team of researchers determined the tRNA's structure by using two ribonucleases to split the tRNA molecule into pieces. Each enzyme split the molecule at location points for specific nucleotides. By a process of "puzzling out" the structure of the pieces split by the two different enzymes, then comparing the pieces from both enzyme splits, the team eventually determined the entire structure of the molecule.

The structure was completed in 1964, and was a key discovery in explaining the synthesis of proteins from messenger RNA. It was also the first nucleotide sequence of a ribonucleic acid ever determined. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 for this discovery, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg were also awarded the prize in that year for contributions to the understanding of protein synthesis.

Using Holley team's method, other scientists determined the structures of the remaining tRNA's. A few years later the method was modified to help track the sequence of nucleotides in various bacterial, plant, and human viruses.

In 1968 Holley became a resident fellow at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California.

References

*USDA ARS. " [http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/timeline/RNA.htm Probing the Mystery of Life] "
*Nobelprize.org. " [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1968/holley-bio.html Robert W. Holley – Biography] .
*Thavanathan, R. and Morgan,S. " [http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/C_holley_expt.html Who was the mysterious and possibly dangerous man we call ..........Robert W. Holley (1922-1993) ?] "

External links

* [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1968/holley-lecture.pdf Holley's Nobel Lecture]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Robert William Holley — Robert W. Holley Robert W. Holley (links) Robert William Holley (* 28. Januar 1922 in Urbana, Illinois …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert W. Holley — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Robert W. Holley, al fondo a la izquierda Dr Robert W. Holley (28 de enero de 1922 – 11 de febrero de 1993) fue un bioquímico americano, quien fue galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 1968,… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Robert W. Holley — Robert Holley Robert Holley Robert Holley Naissance 28 janvier 1922 Urbana dans l Illinois aux États Unis ( …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Robert W. Holley — (links) Robert William Holley (* 28. Januar 1922 in Urbana, Illinois, USA; † 11. Februar 1993 in Los Gatos, Kalifornien, USA) war ein US amerikanischer Biochemiker. Holley gelang im Jahr 1962 erstmals die Isolierung einer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1968: Robert William Holley — Har Gobind Khorana — Marshall Warren Nirenberg —   Die drei amerikanischen Wissenschaftler erhielten den Nobelpreis für »ihre Interpretation des genetischen Codes und dessen Funktion bei der Proteinsynthese«.    Biografien   Robert William Holley, * Urbana (Illinois) 28. 1. 1922, ✝ Los Gatos… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Robert Holley — Robert W. Holley Robert W. Holley (links) Robert William Holley (* 28. Januar 1922 in Urbana, Illinois …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Holley — can refer to:People* Alexander Lyman Holley, mechanical engineer * Charles Hardin Holley was the real name of singer, Buddy Holly * George Holley (1885 – 1942), England international footballer * Horace Holley (1781 1827), a Unitarian minister… …   Wikipedia

  • Holley — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Alexander H. Holley (1804–1887), US amerikanischer Politiker Charles Hardin Holley (1936–1959), US amerikanischer Rock’n’Roll Musiker und Komponist, siehe Buddy Holly Major Holley (1924−1990), US… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert Holley — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Holley. Robert Holley Naissance 28 janvier 1922 Urbana dans l Illinois aux États Unis (États Unis) Décès 11  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Robert Augustine Hurley — (* 25. August 1895 in Bridgeport, Connecticut; † 3. Mai 1968 in West Hartford, Connecticut) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Gouverneur des US Bundesstaates Connecticut. Er war Mitglied der Demokratischen Partei. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.