Panicum antidotale

Panicum antidotale

name="Panicum antidotale"

species="P. antidotale"
binomial="Panicum antidotale"
Synonyms="Panicum miliare" (Lam.)

"Panicum antidotale" Retz. called in Punjabi ਘਮੂਰ ghamur is a tall (up to 3 metres), coarse, woody perennial grass of the Panicum family found throughout the Himalaya and the Upper Gangetic Plain and specifically in various regions of the Indian state of Punjab and the Pakistan province of Punjab as well as in the neighbouring areas of these regions. The plant has strong spreading rhizomes.

This grass is also Listed by Coldstream in his "Illustrations of Some of the Grasses of the Southern Punjab" [Coldstream, William: "Illustrations of Some of the Grasses of the Southern Punjab: Being Photo-lithographs of the Principal Grasses found at Hisar with short Descriptive letterpress" W. Thacker & Co., 82 Newgate Street, London, 1889.] with the vernacular name ghirri (Punjabi ਿਘਰੱੀ) which he however explains is not known to those landowners that he had interviewed as a separate species of Panicum but rather as an unripe form of Panicum antidotale which is generally called in Punjabi ghamur ਘਮੂਰ.


However Panicum antidotale is found in rich soils that have often been improved with compost or dung be they originally of sand or clay. According to William Coldstream for some reason it seems to be found in the vicinity of caper bushes.


This grass is not considered of much use beyond its early tender stages having a bitter or brackish taste when it matures. According to some other sources the consumption of this plant involves its seeds, though there is no evidence of this. [ [ Plants For A Future Search Error ] dead link|date=June 2008] In some parts of its habitat it is used as a fumigant in the treatment of wounds and smallpox.

Pests and diseases

"Panicum antidotale" seems to be subject to something called yellow stripe disease which is usually found in sugar-cane. The disease in this grass, in which the virus persists for long periods, is capable not only of infecting sugar-canes in their vicinity, but also serves as new sources of infection when diseased canes have been removed. [Ledeboer, F. 1922: Arch. Suikerind. Nederl.-lndie. 30: 21, 359-362]


* "Panicum attenuatum" Willd.
* "Panicum miliare"
* "Panicum proliferum"
* "Panicum sumatrense"

Punjabi dialect forms

The following dialect forms are recoded in Punjabi for this grass:
* Firozpur:
** ਗਰ੍ਮ garham s.m.
* Hisar:
** ਿਘੱਰੀ ghirri s.f. - Though see Coldstream's note above.
* Jhang:
** ਘਮੂਰ ghamūr s.m. - Where "Panicum antidotale" is not found on the prevalent nitrate-saturated soils of the district (called in Punjabi ਕਲੱਰ "kallar").
* Multan:
** ਕੁਟਕੀ kuṭkī s.f., 1. A gnat; 2. The name of a plant "Panicum miliare" used medicinally; 3. Hellebore. Which again seems to be a synonym for "Panicum antidotale". Compare the Punjabi form ਕੁਦਕੀ kudkī for "Panicum miliare" which is a synonym for "Panicum antidotale".
* North West Frontier:
** ਘਮੂਰ ghamūr s.m.; ਗਰ੍ਮ garham s.m.

Other Indian languages

Indo-Aryan languages

* Hindi:
** कुटकी kuṭkī [Compare Prakrit कुटुकिआ kuṭukīā< from Sanskrit कटुक kuṭuk + इका -ikā] , s.f. 1. A medicinal plant, black hellebore, "Helleborus niger"; wolf's bane; aconite; 2. A kind of grain, "Panicum miliare". See above where as in dialectal Punjabi forms the reference here is to "Panicum antidotale". The meaning is found in Hindi कुटकी kuṭkī [S. कुट्टक (rt. कुट्ट्)+इका] , s.f. 1. Cutting, dividing; 2. A nip; 3. An incision (made with the teeth, &c., on thread, &c.;4. A gnat (cf. S. kaṭu-kīṭa);5. Estrangement, separation (from), desertion (of):--kuṭkī denā, or kuṭkī lagānā (-meṅ), 1. To nip; 2. To make an incision (in), to cut (the string of a kite, &c.).

Dravidian languages

* Gondi:
** kōhalā, (W. Ph.) kohalā, (S.) kohala s.m.

* Kannada:
** koṟale, korle s.m., A kind of millet, "Panicum italicum" Linn.

* Konḍa:
** koṟeŋ (pl.) s.m., A grain.

* Kota:
** koyḷ s.m., Foxtail millet "Setaria italica"; korly id. (< Badaga); korra manḍeya s.m., Finger millet "Eleusine coracana".

* Kui:
** kueri s.m., Millet, "Panicum italicum" Linn.

* Malayalam:
** koˀla s.m., "Panicum miliare", gor̥a (pl. -ŋ).

* Parji:
** koyla s.m., "Panicum italicum".

* Tamil:
** சாமை cāmai (சாமி), s.m., A kind of grain, millet. < From Old Indo-Aryan šyāmā s.m., 1. Poor-man's millet, sown in Āvaṇi and maturing in six weeks to four months, "Echinichloa crus-galli". Compare: சிறுசாமை ciṟu-cāmai , n. < id. + சாமை, a kind of little millet, "Panicum miliare"; சாமைவகை. (சங். அக.); புற்சாமை puṟ-cāmai, , n. < id. + a species of little millet, Panicum; சாமைவகை.; பனிச்சாமை paṉi-c-cāmai , n. < பனி + a kind of little millet, Panicum; சாமைவகை. (யாழ். அக.). Though as noted above "Panicum miliare" is a synonym: in northern India it seems to refer to "Panicum antidotale", whilst in southern India it seems to refer to "Echinichloa crus-galli".
** kural s.m., Italian millet.

* Telegu:
** koṟṟalu (pl.) id.; koṟṟa s.m., The cereal yielding koṟṟalu.

Other languages

"Panicum antidotale" is also called:
* English: Blue panic grass
** "Australia": Giant panic grass
** "California": Blue Panicgrass, Switch Grass
** "Hawaii": Giant panic grass; Little millet.
*French: panic bleu
*Spanish: Pánico azul


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