- Gioachino Rossini
Gioachino Antonio Rossini [Rossini's first name is often spelled "Gioacchino." Rossini himself spelled it with either one "c" or two early in life, but eventually settled on "Gioachino." "Baker's", "Grove", and most Rossini scholars use "Gioachino."] (
February 29, 1792– November 13, 1868) was a popular Italian composerwho created 39 operas as well as sacred musicand chamber music. His best known works include "Il barbiere di Siviglia" (" The Barber of Seville"), " La Cenerentola" and "Guillaume Tell" ("William Tell").
Gioachino Antonio Rossini was born into a family of musicians in
Pesaro, a town on the Adriatic coast of Italy. His father, Giuseppe, was a horn player and inspector of slaughterhouses, his mother, Anna, was a singer and a baker's daughter. Rossini's parents began his musical training early, and by the age of six he was playing the triangle in his father's band.
Rossini's father was sympathetic to the French Revolution and welcomed Napoleon's troops when they arrived in Northern Italy. This became a problem when the
Austrians restored the old regime in 1796. Rossini's father was sent to prison, and his mother took him to Bologna, earning her living as a leading singer at various theatres of the Romagnaregion, where she was ultimately joined by her husband. During this time, Rossini was frequently left in the care of his aging grandmother, who was unable to effectively control the boy.
He remained at Bologna in the care of a pork butcher, while his father played the horn in the orchestras of the theatres at which his wife sang. The boy had three years' instruction in the
harpsichordfrom Giuseppe Prinettiof Novara, who played the scale with two fingers only. Combined with his musical profession was his business of selling liquor, and his propensity to fall asleep while standing; these qualities making him a fit subject for ridicule by his pupil.
He was taken from Prinetti and apprenticed to a blacksmith. In
Angelo Teseihe found a congenial master, and learned to sight-read, to play accompaniments on the pianoforte, and to sing well enough to take solo parts in the church when he was ten years of age. Important from this period are six "sonatas a quattro" or string sonatas, composed in three days, unusually scored for 2 violins, cello and double bass. The original scores were found in the Library of Congress in Washington DC after World War II, dated from 1804 when the composer was twelve. Often transcribed for string orchestra, the sonatas reveal the young composer's affinity for Haydn and Mozart, already showing signs of operatic tendencies, punctuated by frequent rhythm changes and dominated by songlike melodies.
In 1805 he appeared at the theatre of the Commune in
Ferdinando Paer's "Camilla" at age thirteen — his only public appearance as a singer. He was also a capable horn player in the footsteps of his father. Around this time, he composed individual numbers to a libretto by Vincenza Mombelli called " Demetrio e Polibio", which was handed to the boy in pieces. Though it was Rossini's first opera, written when he was thirteen or fourteen, the work was not staged until the composer was twenty years old, premiering as his sixth official opera.
In 1806, at the age of 14, Rossini became a
cellostudent under Cavedagni at the Conservatorio of Bologna. In 1807 he was admitted to the counterpoint class of Padre Stanislao Mattei(1750-1825). He learned to play the cello with ease, but the pedantic severity of Mattei's views on counterpoint only served to drive the young composer's views toward a freer school of composition. His insight into orchestral resources is generally ascribed not to the strict compositional rules he learned from Mattei, but to knowledge gained independently while scoring the quartets and symphonies of Haydn and Mozart. At Bologna he was known as "il Tedeschino" ("the Little German") on account of his devotion to Mozart.
Through the friendly interposition of the Marquis Cavalli, his first opera, "
La cambiale di matrimonio", was produced at Venice when he was a youth of eighteen. But two years before this he had already received the prize at the Conservatorio of Bologna for his cantata "Il pianto d'Armonia sulla morte d’Orfeo". Between 1810 and 1813, at Bologna, Rome, Venice, and Milan, Rossini produced operas of varying success. All memory of these works is eclipsed by the enormous success of his opera " Tancredi".
librettowas an arrangement by Gaetano Rossiof Voltaire’s tragedy "Tancrède". Traces of Ferdinando Paerand Giovanni Paisiellowere undeniably present in fragments of the music. But any critical feeling on the part of the public was drowned by appreciation of such melodies as "Di tanti palpiti... Mi rivedrai, ti rivedrò," which became so popular that the Italians would sing it in crowds at the law courts until called upon by the judge to desist.
Rossini continued to write operas for
Veniceand Milanduring the next few years, but their reception was tame and in some cases unsatisfactory after the success of "Tancredi." In 1815 he retired to his home at Bologna, where Domenico Barbaia, the impresario of the Naplestheatre, concluded an agreement with him by which he was to take the musical direction of the Teatro San Carloand the Teatro Del Fondoat Naples, composing for each of them one opera a year. His payment was to be 200 ducats per month; he was also to receive a share from the gambling tables set in the theatre's "ridotto", amounting to about 1000 ducats per annum. This was an extraordinarily lucrative arrangement for any professional musician at that time.
Some older composers in Naples, notably Zingarelli and Paisiello, were inclined to intrigue against the success of the youthful composer; but all hostility was made futile by the enthusiasm which greeted the court performance of his "
Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra", in which Isabella Colbran, who subsequently became the composer’s wife, took a leading part. The libretto of this opera by Giovanni Schmidtwas in many of its incidents an anticipation of those presented to the world a few years later in Sir Walter Scott’s "Kenilworth". The opera was the first in which Rossini wrote the ornaments of the airs instead of leaving them to the fancy of the singers, and also the first in which the recitativo secco was replaced by a recitative accompanied by a string quartet.
The Barber of Seville "(Il barbiere di Siviglia)"
Rossini's most famous opera was produced on
February 20, 1816at the Teatro Argentinain Rome. The libretto by Cesare Sterbini, a version of Pierre Beaumarchais' infamous stage play Le Barbier de Séville, was the same as that already used by Giovanni Paisielloin his own "Barbiere", an opera which had enjoyed European popularity for more than a quarter of a century. Much is made of how fast Rossini's opera was written, scholarship generally agreeing upon two weeks. Later in life, Rossini claimed to have written the opera in only twelve days. It was a colossal failure when it premiered as " Almaviva"; Paisiello’s admirers were extremely indignant, sabotaging the production by whistling and shouting during the entire first act. However, not long after the second performance, the opera became so successful that the fame of Paisiello's opera was transferred to Rossini's, to which the title " The Barber of Seville" passed as an inalienable heritage.
Marriage and mid-career
Between 1815 and 1823 Rossini produced 20 operas. Of these "Otello" formed the climax to his reform of serious opera, and offers a suggestive contrast with the treatment of the same subject at a similar point of artistic development by the composer
Giuseppe Verdi. In Rossini’s time the tragic close was so distasteful to the public of Rome that it was necessary to invent a happy conclusion to "Otello".
Conditions of stage production in 1817 are illustrated by Rossini’s acceptance of the subject of
Cinderellafor a librettoonly on the condition that the supernatural element should be omitted. The opera " La Cenerentola" was as successful as Barbiere. The absence of a similar precaution in the construction of his " Mosè in Egitto" led to disaster in the scene depicting the passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea, when the defects in stage contrivance always raised a laugh, so that the composer was at length compelled to introduce the chorus "Dal tuo stellato Soglio" to divert attention from the dividing waves.
In 1822, four years after the production of this work, Rossini married the coloratura soprano
Isabella Colbran. In the same year, he directed his "Cenerentola" in Vienna, where " Zelmira" was also performed. After this he returned to Bologna; but an invitation from Prince Metternichto come to Verona and "assist in the general re-establishment of harmony" was too tempting to be refused, and he arrived at the Congress in time for its opening on October 20, 1822. Here he made friends with Chateaubriand and Dorothea Lieven.
In 1823, at the suggestion of the manager of the King’s Theatre,
London, he came to England, being much fêted on his way through Paris. In England he was given a generous welcome, which included an introduction to King George IV and the receipt of £7000 after a residence of five months. In 1824 he became musical director of the Théâtre-Italienin Paris at a salary of £800 per annum, and when the agreement came to an end he was rewarded with the offices of Chief Composer to the King and Inspector-General of Singing in France, to which was attached the same income. At the age of 32, Rossini was able to go into semi-retirement with essentially financial independence.
End of career
The production of his "
Guillaume Tell" in 1829 brought his career as a writer of opera to a close. The libretto was by Étienne Jouy and Hippolyte Bis, but their version was revised by Armand Marrast. The music is remarkable for its freedom from the conventions discovered and utilized by Rossini in his earlier works, and marks a transitional stage in the history of opera.Though a very good opera, it is rarely heard uncut today, as the original score runs more than four hours in performance.
In 1829 he returned to
Bologna. His mother had died in 1827, and he was anxious to be with his father. Arrangements for his subsequent return to Paris on a new agreement were upset by the abdication of Charles X and the July Revolutionof 1830. Rossini, who had been considering the subject of Faustfor a new opera, returned, however, to Paris in the November of that year.
Six movements of his "
Stabat Mater" were written in 1832 and the rest in 1839, the year of his father's death. The success of the work bears comparison with his achievements in opera; but his comparative silence during the period from 1832 to his death in 1868 makes his biography appear almost like the narrative of two lives — the life of swift triumph, and the long life of seclusion, of which biographers give us pictures in stories of the composer's cynical wit, his speculations in fish culture, his mask of humility and indifference.
His first wife died in 1845, and on
August 16, 1846he married Olympe Pélissier, who had sat for Vernet for his picture of "Judith and Holofernes". Political disturbances compelled Rossini to leave Bologna in 1848. After living for a time in Florencehe settled in Paris in 1855, where his house was a centre of artistic society. Rossini had been a well-known gourmandand an excellent amateur chef his entire life, but he indulged these two passions fully once he retired from composing, and today there are a number of dishes with the appendage "alla Rossini" to their names that were either created by him or specifically for him. Probably the most famous of these is Tournedos alla Rossini, still served by many restaurants today. He died at his country house at Passyon Friday November 13, 1868and was buried in Père LachaiseCemetery, Paris, France. In 1887 his remains were moved to the Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze, in Florence, where they now rest.
He was a foreign associate of the Institute, grand officer of the Legion of Honour, and the recipient of innumerable orders.
In his compositions Rossini plagiarized even more freely from himself than from other musicians, and few of his operas are without such admixtures frankly introduced in the form of arias or overtures. For example, in "Il Barbiere" there is an aria for the Count (often omitted) 'Cessa di piu resistere', which Rossini used (with minor changes) in "Le Nozze di Teti e di Peleo" and in "La Cenerentola" (the cabaletta for Angelina's Rondo is almost unchanged).
A characteristic mannerism in his orchestral scoring, a long, steady build of sound, creating "tempests in teapots by beginning in a whisper and rising to a flashing, glittering storm" [Faddis, H., 2003, Program Notes for the Overture to "
La scala di seta", [http://capeannsymphony.org/concert303.html Cape Anne Symphony] (accessed 2 May 2007); See also "Rossini Overtures", [http://www.chandos.net/CD_Notes.asp?CNumber=CHAN%209753 Liner Notes] , Chandos (Chan 9753)] earned him the nickname of "Signor Crescendo".
La cambiale di matrimonio" ("The Marriage Contract", 1810)
L'equivoco stravagante" ("The Extravagant Confusion", 1811)
Demetrio e Polibio" ("Demetrius and Polybius", 1812)
L'inganno felice" ("The Merry Deception", 1812)
* "Ciro in Babilonia, ossia La caduta di Baldassare" ("Ciro in Babylon, or The Fall of Balthazar", 1812)
La scala di seta" ("The Silken Ladder", 1812)
La pietra del paragone" ("The Touchstone", 1812)
* "L'occasione fa il ladro, ossia Il cambio della valigia" ("The Thief's Opportunity, or The Suitcase Exchange", 1812)
* "Il signor Bruschino, ossia Il figlio per azzardo" ("Signor Bruschino, or The Gambling Son", 1813)
Tancredi" ("Tancrède", based on play by Voltaire, 1813)
L'italiana in Algeri" ("The Italian Girl in Algiers", 1813)
Aureliano in Palmira" ("Aurelius in Palmyra", 1813)
Il turco in Italia" ("The Turk in Italy", 1814)
Sigismondo" ("Sigismund", 1814)
Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra" ("Elizabeth, Queen of England", 1815)
Torvaldo e Dorliska" ("Torvald and Dorliska", 1815)
* "Il barbiere di Siviglia, ossia L'inutile precauzione" ("The Barber of Seville, or The Useless Precaution", 1816)
*"La gazzetta, ossia Il matrimonio per concorso" ("The Newspaper, or The Marriage Contest", 1816)
* "Otello, ossia Il Moro di Venezia" ("Othello, or The Moor of Venice", 1816)
* "La Cenerentola, ossia La bontà in trionfo" ("Cinderella, or Goodness Triumphant", 1817)
La gazza ladra" ("The Thieving Magpie", 1817)
*"Armida" ("Armida", 1817)
*"Adelaide di Borgogna, ossia Ottone, re d'Italia' ("Adelaide of Burgundy, or Otto, King of Italy", 1817)
Mosè in Egitto" ("Moses in Egypt", 1818)
* "Adina, ossia Il califfo di Bagdad" ("Adina, or The Caliph of Baghdad", 1818)
Ricciardo e Zoraide" ("Richard and Zoraide", 1818)
Ermione" ("Hermione", 1819)
Eduardo e Cristina" ("Edward and Christina", 1819)
La donna del lago" ("The Lady of the Lake", 1819)
* "Bianca e Falliero, Il consiglio dei tre" ("Bianca and Fallière, or The Council of Three", 1819)
Maometto secondo" ("Muhammad II", 1820)
* "Matilde di Shabran, ossia Bellezza e Cuor di Ferro"; also: "Mathilde di Shabran" ("Matilda of Shabran, or Beauty with a Heart of Iron", 1821)
Zelmira" ("Zelmira", 1822)
Semiramide" ("Semiramis", based on a play by Voltaire, 1823)
* "Il viaggio a Reims, ossia L'albergo del Giglio d'Oro" (French: "Le voyage à Reims, ou l'Hôtel du Lys-d'Or") ("The Journey to Reims, or The Inn of the Golden Fleur-de-Lys", 1825)
Ivanhoé", 1826, is comprised entirely of music taken from earlier Rossini operas
Le siège de Corinthe" (Italian: "L'assedio di Corinto"; "The Siege of Corinth", 1826. A revision of "Maometto secondo")
* "Moïse et Pharaon, ou Le passage de la mer rouge" ("Moses and Pharoah, or The Passage to the Red Sea", 1827; a revision of "Mosè in Egitto")
Le comte Ory" (Italian: "Il Conte Ory") ("Count Ory", 1828)
* "Guillaume Tell" (Italian: "Guglielmo Tell", "William Tell"; 1829)
*"Il pianto d'armonia sulla morte di Orfeo" (1808)
*"La morte di Didone" (1811)
*"Dalle quete e pallid'ombre" (1812)
*"Egle ed Irene" (1814)
*"Le nozze di Teti e di Peleo" (1816)
*"Omaggio umiliato" (1819)
*"Cantata... 9 maggio 1819" (1819)
*"La riconoscenza" (1821)
*"Giunone" (before 1822)
*"La santa alleanza" (1822)
*"Il vero omaggio" (1822)
*"Omaggio pastorale" (1823)
*"Il pianto delle muse in morte di Lord Byron" (1824)
*"Cantata per il battesimo del figlio del banchiere Aguado" (1827)
*"L'armonica cetra del nune" (1830)
*"Giovanna d'Arco" (1832, revision 1852)
*"Cantata in onore del sommo pontefice Pio IX" (1847)
* Sei sonate a quattro (1804)
* Sinfonia "al conventello" (1806)
* Cinque duets pour cor (1806)
* Sinfonia (1808, utilisée dans "l'inganno felice")
* Sinfonia (1809, utilisée dans "la cambiale di matrimonio" et "adelaide di borgogna")
* Sinfonia "obbligata a contrabasso" (1807-10)
* Variazzioni di clarinetto (1809)
* Andante e tema con variazioni (1812)
* Andante e tema con variazioni per arpa e violino (1820)
* Passo doppio 1822 (variations de l'air "di tanti palpiti" dans "tancredi")
* Valse (1823)
* Serenata (1823)
* Duetto per Violoncello e Contrabasso (1824)
* Rendez-vous de chasse (1828)
* Fantaisie (1829)
* Trois marches militaires (1837)
* Scherzo (1843)
* Tema originale di Rossini variato per violino da Giovacchino Giovacchini (1845)
* Marcia (1852)
* Thème de Rossini suivi de deux variations et coda par Moscheles père (1860)
* La corona d'Italia (1868)
Messa di gloria" (1820)
Tantum ergo" (1824)
*" Stabat mater" (first version 1832, second version 1841)
Trois choeurs religieux" ("La foi, l'espérance, la charité£, 1844)
Tantum ergo" (1847)
O salutaris hostia" (1857)
Laus deo" (1861)
Petite Messe Solennelle" (first version 1864, second version 1867)
ecular vocal music
* Se il vuol la molinara (1801)
* Dolce aurette che spirate (1810)
* La mia pace io già perdei (1812)
* Qual voce, quai note (1813)
* Alla voce della gloria (1813)
* Amore mi assisti (1814)
* Il trovatore (1818)
* Il carnevale di Venezia (Rome, 1821)
* Belta crudele (1821)
* La pastorella (1821)
* Canzonetta spagnuola (1821)
* Infelice ch'io son (1821)
* Addio ai viennesi (1822)
* Dall'oriente l'astro del giorno (1824)
* Ridiamo, cantiamo, che tutto sen va (1824)
* In giorno si bello (London, 1824)
* Tre quartetti da camera (1827)
* Les adieux à Rome (1827)
* Orage et beau temps (1829/30)
* La passeggiata (Madrid, 1831)
* La dichiarazione (1834)
* Les soirées musicales (1830-1835)
La regata veneziana
* Deux nocturnes: 1. adieu a l'Italie, 2. le départ (1836)
* Nizza (1836)
* L'âme délaissée (1844)
* Francesca da Rimini (1848)
* Mi lagnero tacendo (1858)
La Danza Péchés de vieillesse
*"Vol I Album italiano"
*"Vol II Album français"
*"Vol III Morceaux réservés"
*"Vol IV Quatre hors d’œuvres et quatre mendiants"
*"Vol V Album pour les enfants adolescents"
*"Vol VI Album pour les enfants dégourdis"
*"Vol VII Album de chaumière"
*"Vol VIII Album de château"
*"Vol IX Album pour piano, violon, violoncello, harmonium et cor"
*"Vol X Miscellanée pour piano"
*"Vol XI Miscellanée de musique vocale"
*"Vol XII Quelques riens pour album"
*"Vol XIII Musique anodine"
* [http://www.fondazionerossini.org/ Fondazione G. Rossini]
* [http://www.rossinigesellschaft.de/data/pdvd.html List and text of the songs on the website of the "German Rossini Society"]
* [http://www.rossinioperafestival.it/ Rossini Opera Festival]
* [http://rossini.visioservices.de/ Rossini in Wildbad - Belcanto Opera Festival]
* [http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/search.php?query=Rossini%2C+Gioacchino&queryType=%40attr+1%3D1 Rossini cylinder recordings] , from the
Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Projectat the University of California, Santa BarbaraLibrary.
* [http://www.classiccat.net/rossini_g/ The Rossini page at Classic Cat - the free classical music directory]
* [http://greatcaricatures.com/articles_galleries/gill/galleries/html/1867_0706_rossini.html 1867 Caricature of Rossini by André Gill]
* [http://humanities.uchicago.edu/orgs/ciao/ The Center for Italian Opera Studies] : Rossini critical edition
* [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=43:22169] - Riccardo Caramella performs Quatre Mendiants, Quatre hors d'oeuvres
NAME= Rossini, Gioachino
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Rossini, Gioachino Antonio
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Italian composer
DATE OF BIRTH=
February 29, 1792
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
November 13, 1868
PLACE OF DEATH=
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