SN 1006


SN 1006

Supernova
name = Supernova SN 1006


epoch = ?
type = Type Ia
SNRtype = Shell
host = Milky Way
constellation = Lupus
ra = 15h 2m8s
dec = -41° 57′
gal = G.327.6+14.6
discovery = May 1 1006
iauc =
mag_v = -7.5 [cite journal
last=Winkler | first=P. Frank
title=The SN 1006 Remnant: Optical Proper Motions, Deep Imaging, Distance, and Brightness at Maximum
journal=The Astrophysical Journal
year=2003 | volume=585 | pages=324–335
doi=10.1086/345985
]
distance = 7200 light-years, 2.2 kpc
progenitor = Unknown
progenitor_type = Unknown
b-v = some sources cite
yellowish at visible spectrum
notes = Brightest supernova in recorded
history, and therefore most
described of the pre-
telescopic era

SN 1006 was a supernova, widely seen on Earth beginning in the year 1006 CE; Earth was about 7200 light-years away from the supernova. It was the brightest apparent magnitude stellar event in recorded history. First appearing in the constellation of Lupus between April 30 and May 1 of that year, this "guest star" was described by observers in Switzerland, Egypt, Iraq, China, Japan, and possibly North America.

Historic description

The Chinese and Arabic astronomers have left the most complete historical descriptions of the supernova.

According to "Songshi" in the section of 56 and 461, the star was seen on May 1, 1006 which appeared to the south of constellation Di, east of Lupus and one degree to the west of Centaurus. The size of the visual explosion was half that of the moon, and shone so brightly that objects on the ground could be seen at night. During September of 1006, it went below the horizon. By December, it was again sighted in the constellation Di. The Chinese astrologer Zhou Keming, who was on his return to Kaifeng from his duty in Guangdong, interpreted the star to the emperor on May 30 as an auspicious star, yellow in color and brilliant in its brightness, that would bring great prosperity to the state over which it appeared.

The Egyptian Arabic astronomer and astrologer, Ali ibn Ridwan, writing in a commentary on Ptolemy's "Tetrabiblos", has left us another historical description of the supernova. He says that the object was 2-1/2 to three times as large as the disc of Venus clarifyme, and about one-quarter the brightness of the Moon, and, like all other observers, says that the star was low on the southern horizon. Monks at the Benedictine abbey at St. Gallen broadly corroborate bin Ridwan's observations as to magnitude and location in the sky, additionally writing that " [i] n a wonderful manner this was sometimes contracted, sometimes diffused, and moreover sometimes extinguished." This last is often taken as proof that the supernova was of Type Ia. Some sources state that the star was bright enough to cast shadows; it was certainly seen during daylight hours for some time, and the modern-day astronomer Frank Winkler has said that "in the spring of 1006, people could probably have read manuscripts at midnight by its light."

There appear to have been two distinct phases in the early evolution of this supernova. There was first a three-month period at which it was at its brightest; after this period it diminished, then returned for a period of about eighteen months. Most astrologers interpreted the event as a portent of warfare and famine.

A petroglyph by the Hohokam has been discovered in White Tank Mountain Regional Park which may be the first known North American representation of the supernova. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2006/TECH/space/06/05/rock.art/index.html CNN.com - Ancient rock art may depict exploding star - Jun 5, 2006 ] ]

The Supernova Remnant of SN 1006

The associated supernova remnant from this explosion was not identified until 1965, when Doug Milne and Frank Gardner used the Parkes radio telescope to demonstrate that the previously known radio source PKS 1459-41, near the star Beta Lupi, had the appearance of a 30-arcminute circular shell. [ [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1965AJ.....70..754G The supernova of A.D. 1006 ] ] Over the next few years, both X-ray and optical emission from this remnant were also detected. The supernova remnant of SN 1006 has an estimated distance of 2.2 kiloparsecs, making it approximately 20 parsecs in diameter. As expected for the remnant of a Type Ia supernova, no associated neutron star or black hole has been found.

References

External links

* [http://www.jlab.org/~jiang/supernova/SN1006.ppt Stories of SN 1006 in Chinese literature] .
* [http://www.noao.edu/outreach/press/pr03/pr0304.html National Optical Observatory Press Release for March 2003]
* [http://www.space.com/imageoftheday/image_of_day_051219.html Space.com Image of the Day 19 December 2005]
* [http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20060606.wglyph0606/BNStory/Science/home Globe and Mail: Arizona petroglyph recorded 1006 supernova, astronomer suggests]
* [http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/060605_rock_art.html "Ancient Rock Art Depicts Exploding Star" Space.com report, June 6, 2006]
* [http://skytonight.com/news/3422486.html?page=1&c=y, Experts question "supernova" rock art, Sky & Telescope Report, June 7, 2006]
* [http://www.mrao.cam.ac.uk/surveys/snrs/snrs.G327.6+14.6.html Entry for supernova remnant of SN 1006] from the Galactic Supernova Remnant Catalogue
* [http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2005/sn1006/ X-ray image of supernova remnant of SN 1006] , as seen with the Chandra X-ray Observatory
* [http://www.worldhistoryblog.com/2006/06/ancient-rock-art-may-depict-exploding.html Ancient rock art may depict exploding star]
* [http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap080704.html Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD)] , July 4, 2008
* [http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030317.html APOD] , March 17, 2003
*


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