- China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite program
The China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite program is a technological cooperation program between
Braziland Chinawhich develops and operates Earth observation satellites.
In Brazil, the
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais(INPE or National Institute of Space Research) and the Brazilian Space Agency(Portuguese: "Agência Espacial Brasileira"; AEB) are involved with the program, as is the Brazilian industrial sector. In China, organizations involved include the Chinese Academy for Space Technology(a sub-entity of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation), the China National Space Administrationand various other organizations.
Initially the program included development and deployment of two satellites. Subsequently agreement was reached to include three additional satellites.
The first satellite of the series, CBERS-1, was successfully launched on October 14th 1999 [cite web | url = http://www.cbers.inpe.br/en/programas/faq.htm | title = Frequently asked questions on CBERS program | publisher = INPE] [cite web | url = http://www.cbers.inpe.br/en/programas/faq.htm | title = Frequently asked questions on CBERS program | publisher = INPE] on a
Long March 4B. It is sometimes also called ZY 1. [cite web | url = http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/database/MasterCatalog?sc=1999-057A | title = CBERS 1 | publisher = National Space Science Data Center] It remained functional until August 2003. [cite web | url = http://www.cbers.inpe.br/en_noticias/index.php?cod=not82 | title = The Launch of CBERS-2B | publisher = INPE] . The second satellite, CBERS-2, was successfully launched on October 21st 2003 [cite web | url = http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/database/MasterCatalog?sc=2003-049A | title = CBERS | publisher = National Space Science Data Center] [cite web | url = http://www.astronautix.com/craft/zy.htm | title = ZY | publisher = Encyclopedia Astronautica] , and the third one, CBERS-2B, was also successfully launched on September 19th 2007 [cite web | url = http://en.rian.ru/world/20070919/79431180.html | title = China launches 3rd earth observation satellite | publisher = RIA Novosti] [cite web | url = http://www.cbers.inpe.br/en_noticias/index.php?cod=not86 | title = CBERS-2B Launching | publisher = INPE] Sample images from CBERS-2B were made available January 10th, 2007. [cite web | url = http://www.cbers.inpe.br/en_noticias/index.php?cod=not88 | title = CBERS-2B first images delivered | publisher = INPE] . All of them were launched by Chinese Long March 4Brockets from Taiyuan launch facilities in the People's Republic of China. They have a sun-synchronous orbit around the Earth at 778 km of altitude.
CBERS-1 and 2 are identical satellites. They have three remote sensing multispectral cameras: [ cite web | url = camerashttp://www.cbers.inpe.br/?hl=en&content=cameras1e2e2b | title = CBERS Satéllite Sino Brasileiro de Recursos Terrestres] Wide Field Imager Camera (WFI). This camera records images in two spectral bands: 0,63 - 0,69 µm (red) and 0,77 - 0,89 µm (infrared), with 260m spatial resolution and 890 km of ground swath. About five days are necessary for a whole coverage of the Earth surface.
High Resolution Camera (CCD). This camera records images in five spectral bands: 0,51 - 0,73 µm (panchromatic); 0,45 - 0,52 µm (blue); 0,52 - 0,59 µm (green); 0,63 - 0,69 µm (red); 0,77 - 0,89 µm (near infrared), with 20m spatial resolution and 120 km of ground swath. It is possible to operate this camera both on nadir and off-nadir. This last capability allows the system to reduce the temporal resolution from 26 days (nadir operation mode) to three days (off-nadir operation mode).
Infrared Multispectral Scanner Camera (IRMSS). This camera records images in four spectral bands: 0,50 - 1,10 µm (panchromatic); 1,55 - 1,75 µm (infrared); 2,08 - 2,35 µm (infrared) and 10,40 - 12,50 µm (thermal infrared), with 80m spatial resolution on the three infrared reflected bands and 120 m in the thermal infrared one. Ground swath is 120 km for all the bands of this camera and 26 days are required to obtain a full coverage of the Earth by this camera.
CBERS-2B is also similar to the two previous members of the series, but a new camera was added to the last satellite: High Resolution Panchromatic Camera (HRC). This camera records images in one single panchromatic band 0,50 - 0,80 µm which comprises part of the visible and of the near infrared portion of electromagnetic spectrum. The images recorded by this camera are 27km width and have 2.7m spatial resolution. 130 days are required to obtain a full coverage of the Earth by this camera.
* CBERS-3 is expected to be launched in 2009 and CBERS-4 in 2011 [cite web | url = http://www.cbers.inpe.br/pt/programas/cbers3-4.htm | title = CBERS Satélite Brasileiro de Recursoso Terrestres]
Brazilian space program
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