- White Other (United Kingdom Census)
Infobox Ethnic group
group = "White Other" ()
caption = Clockwise from top left:
Rachel Weisz• David Miliband• Sienna Miller Frankie Dettori• Amy Winehouse• George I George Michael
population =Between 4,440,000 and 5,760,000 according to estimates from each nationality smaller|(between 7.3% and 9.5% of UK population)
regions = Throughout the
British Englishand many languages of Europe
religions = Primarily
Christianity, Islamand Judaism
British Arabs· British Asians· Black British British Chinese· British Filipino British Iranians· British Iraqis British Korean· Latin American Britons" British Mixed-Race"· British MoroccansBritish Orientals· Yemeni British" White British"
"White Other" is a term used in the UK census to describe white persons of non-British and non-Irish descent in
Great Britain. The category White Other does not comprise a single ethnic group but is instead a method of identification for white people who are not represented by other white Census categories. This means that White Other group contains a diverse collection of people with different countries of birth, religions and languages.
White Britishand White Irish, the category does not appear in Northern Ireland, where only one single "White" classification was presented to respondents. [ [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/about/data/harmonisation/downloads/P3.pdf Microsoft Word - P3 - Ethnic Group - amended contact detailsNov06.doc ] ]
In the 2001 UK Census, the majority of people living in
Englandand Walesticking the 'White Other' ethnic group specified their ethnicity as European.cite web|url=http://www.statistics.gov.uk/articles/nojournal/other_ethnicgroups.pdf|title=Who are the 'Other' ethnic groups?|last=Gardener|first=David|coauthors=Connolly, Helen|date=October 2005|publisher=Office for National Statistics|accessdate=2008-06-22] Four out of five were born outside of the UK, with the largest number coming from Western European countries.
; AgeThe White Other group is largely of working age, with only one in ten aged over 65 and one in seven under 16. This does vary according to the stated country of birth, with people born in the UK being disproportionately young. Polish and Italian respondents had a larger proportion of over 65s, which reflects the migration of Poles and Italians to Britain after the Second World War.
; MigrationIn the period 1991-2001, the number of Poles in Britain declined, but since Polish accession to the EU in 2004 this trend has reversed and figures from the Home Office reveal that 264,560 Poles registered to work in Britain between 2004 and 2006. The majority of these new Polish migrants to Britain are of working age (82 per cent aged between 16 and 34), and the majority are employed.
; ReligionA wide number of religions are represented in the Other White group. The largest faith group, 63 per cent, identified themselves as Christian, with 16 per cent defining themselves as without religion, nine per cent as Muslims, and two per cent as Jewish.
; IncreaseThe lists below contain by how much the 'White Other' population in each of England's region has increased in the 2004-05 period, as well as the 10 towns and cities with the fastest growing 'White Other' communities - England average is 7.2%. [ [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/Product.asp?vlnk=14238 National Statistics Online - Product - Population Estimates by Ethnic Group (experimental) ] ]
; By region
Yorkshire and the Humber12.4% growth rate
South West England11.6%
North East England11.3%
North West England9.5%
East of England8.6%
* West Midlands 8.2%
South East England7.9%
; By towns and cities
* Lancaster 20.1%
Kingston upon Hull17.2%
Newcastle upon Tyne15.5%
Western European groups
French Britons are British people of French origin, or French-born people who may have attained British citizenship and who live in the
United Kingdom. There are estimated to be around 200-300,000 people of French nationality living in the UK, most of them in London, a mix of students, businesspeople and general economic migrants. France being the UK's closest neighbour also has a similar sized British population residing there.
Germans have resided in Britain throughout its history. Examples include the Hanseatic merchants of the Middle Ages, from the sixteenth century Protestant refugees entered Britain, fleeing from the instability caused by the religious changes consequent upon the Reformation. By the end of the seventeenth century, a significant German community had developed, consisting mostly of businessmen, mainly from
Hamburg, sugar bakers and other economic migrants. It is estimated that 250,000 people of German origin live in the United Kingdom, with the older generations likely to have emigrated during or after World War IIas possibly refugees [http://www.cre.gov.uk/diversity/ethnicity/whiteother.html] .
Italian Britons are British citizens whose ancestry originates in
Italy. The phrase may refer to someone born in the United Kingdomof Italian descent or to someone who has themselves emigrated from Italy to the United Kingdom. According to the 2001 census a total of 107,002 Italian-born people are currently living in the United Kingdom (Italian or partial ancestryestimated at 133,000), of whom 38,694 reside in London. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/italy.stm Born Abroad: An immigration map of Britain] British Broadcasting Corporation (retrieved 24 August 2007)] In some form or another people of Italian descent have inhabited parts of the British Islesas far back as the fifteenth century.
Maltese British and
SammarineseBritish will also commonly come under this.
Portuguese Britons are
citizens of the United Kingdomwhose ancestryoriginates in the southwest European nation of Portugal. Portuguese peopleare just one of over 8 Lusitanicnational groupsndash Portugalbeing the only Lusitanic country located in Europe, and in fact, the European country where the Lusophoneworld has its origins.The first Portuguese community in Britain was actually made up of people of secret Jewishdescent (known as New Christians) who were persecuted in Portugal from 1496 onwards. This led to the founding of a small secret Portuguese Jewish community in London. The total Portuguese population in the UK is estimated at around 100,000.
Scandinavian British includes people originating from
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Icelandand the Faroe Islands.
Viking exploits in the British Isles are thought to have begun with the sacking of the monastery at Lindisfarne off the Northumbrian coast as early as AD 793, followed by attacks on Jarrow (794) and the Columban church of Iona (976, 802, 806). Scandinavian Vikings soon dominated the sea routes and coastlines stretching from Norway to Shetland, Orkney, Scotland, the Hebrides and Ireland. The period of Scandinavian political and cultural domination in this region lasted until 1472 when Orkney and Shetland became part of Scotland. Scandinavian immigration had a greater impact on the more sparsely-populated areas of the British Isles, especially the Northern Isles and the Hebrides. Over the last couple of centuries, there has been regular migration from Scandinavia to the United Kingdom from families looking to settle, businesspeople, academics to migrant workers, particularly those in the
Oilindustry. Because of the Scandinavians long history and presence in the UK, it is estimated that there could be anywhere from 120,000 to up to 750,000 British people with Scandinavian blood in them.
Spanish Britons or ( _es. Hispano Británico, is derived from "Hispānia" now known as "
España", the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula), are raised and educated citizens or residents of the United Kingdomwhose ancestryoriginates in the southwest European nation of Spain and can identify themselves as having Spanish Cultural heritage. [ [http://hispanic-research.com/home/who_are_they.htm Who are they? ] ] Spanish peopleare more widely spread in Britain than those born in Portugal and started to come to the UK at different times of the twentieth century. In 2001 there were 54,105 Spanish born people living in Britain and 90,000 of Spanish descent.
The Swiss population in the UK is fairly small at around 30-70,000 but large in comparison the Switzerland's actual emigrant population. There is no particular city with a large Swiss population, however is spread throughout the entire country.
Eastern European groups
British Armenians (or Armenian-British) are people who are born or raised in the
United Kingdomwho are of Armenian origin. There has been sporadic emigration from Armeniato the UK since the 18th century, with the biggest influx coming after the Second World War. The majority are based in the major cities of London, Liverpooland Manchester. There has been a lack of census regarding the number of British Armenians in the country, but estimates have ranged from 40,000 to nearly 100,000.
Bulgarian British or Bulgarian Britons are people who are born/raised in or who have emigrated to the United Kingdom who are of Bulgarian origin. Of the 20-30,000-plus Bulgarians in London, most are established in the
Haringeyand Islingtonareas. Many work in the manual labourand hospitalitysectors.There is also a strong Bulgarian community in Scotland, in particular, the Dundeearea with plans for a Slavic East European Institute centred in the city.
There are no official statistics on the number of people of Greek decent in Great Britain, but it is estimated that approximately four hundred thousand (400,000) Greeks either directly or with ancestors from
Cyprus, Greeceand other parts of the east Mediterranean reside in Great Britain and identify themselves as Greek.It is generally recognised that the majority live in the Greater Londonregion, in particular Southgate and Palmers Greenbut many also reside in Glasgowand surrounding areas, with about 15,000. According to a City of London Corporationsponsored report [Philip Baker & John Eversley, Multilingual Capital, commissioned by City of London Corporation, published by Battlebridge 2000.] , there are between 28,600-31,000 Greek (only) speakers in Greater London. The study also reports that out of a total 896,743 London schoolchildren, 0.71% come from a Greek-speaking home. There is currently no census of persons of Greek origin who use English as the home language. There is also a considerable number of Greek students studying in the UK. According to official UK Higher Education Statistics Agency results [ [http://www.hesa.ac.uk/press/pr108/pr108.htm UK Higher Education Statistics Agency results] ] for the 2005/2006 academic year, there were just under 18,000 Greek students in the UK. This was third only behind Chinese and Indian students.
Hungaryjoined the European Unionin 2004, Britain's Hungarian population has began to grow significantly. Hungarians have been arriving in Britain to work not only in the service industries and as au pairs, but also as doctors or employees of large financial institutions. The city's attraction lies most of all in the fact that English, now lingua franca of the world, can be learned or perfected there. But Hungarians enjoy London's thriving cultural life, too.POV-statement|date=September 2008 There are now over 70,000 Hungarians living in Britain.
A Polish minority in United Kingdom has existed since as early as the 16th century. A significant number of
Polessettled in the United Kingdomin the aftermath of the Second World War. After Poland joined the European Unionin May 2004, many young Poles moved to UK which offered good opportunity for work.
Polish people have travelled to
Englandand other parts of the United Kingdomthroughout the centuries for a variety of reasons. In the 16th century Polish travellers came as traders and diplomats. In the 18th century a small number of Polish Protestantsarrived as religious refugees due to the counter reformationin Poland. In the 19th century, due to the collapse of the November Uprisingof 1831, many Polish fighters came to Britain in search of sanctuary.
British Russians or Russian Britons are people of Russian origin who were born or raised in the United Kingdom. There are estimated to be around 300,000 Russians living in the UK. [ [http://www.workpermit.com/news/2006_12_19/uk/russians_londongrad.htm 300,000 Russians in the UK, "Londongrad" a prime location ] ] Current estimates show that approximately 41,000 Russians call London their home, according to some estimates including students, refugees, visa-overstayers and illegal migrants there about 100,000 Russians in London. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/russia/article/0,2763,1190191,00.html] For those who have noticed, the nicknames "Londongrad" and "Moscow-on-the-Thames" are both well known.
Although official figures are not available, estimates put the number of Ukrainians working in London as high as 40,000, with possibly up to 100,000 Ukrainians in the UK as a whole. Many have been compelled by force of utter need to leave their family and friends. This is due to the collapse of the former
Soviet Unionand privatisation in 1991 which has left the Ukrainian economy floundering and about 70% of the population living in poverty.Whilst London naturally has the majority of Ukraininians, other cities with sizeable populations include, Bradford, Nottingham, Manchesterand other areas around Yorkshireand the West Midlands.
Yugoslav British or Yugoslav Britons refers to the people of the former Yugoslavia origin that have formed communities in or were born in the
United Kingdom. Ethnically this most commonly refers to Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, Slovenesand Kosovars. The earliest settlement of Croats was in the 16th century when there was a community in London and other cities. Many former Yugoslavs fled to Britain after the Second World War, with another wave arriving in the late 80s/early 90s. The Serbian community in London was mainly settled here immediately after World War IIby Britain’s ex-combatant Serbian allies who stayed in Britain, not wishing to be repatriated to the communist regime at home. There was a new influx of Serbian people mainly fleeing the recent wars and disintegration of Yugoslavia. Most former Yugoslavs in the UK are now second or third generation, whose parents relocated from 1963 onwards when Yugoslav citizens were issued passports and were able to move and work freely, although some arrived after 1991.There are around 70-100,000 former Yugoslavs in Britain according to various estimates, 40,000 of them in London, mainly in the western borough of Hammersmithand Ealing. Notting Hillis the community's main focus, with the Orthodox Church and the Serbian-Croatian Community Centre. Leedsalso has a large community.
British Turks are either
Turkish peoplewho live in the United Kingdomeven though having been born outside the UK, or are British-born, but have Turkish roots. By Turkish roots, this could mean roots linking back to Turkey, the island of Cyprusor the communities of the Turkish diaspora. The first wave of Turkish immigrants were Turkish Cypriots, who fled Cyprusbecause it became unstable to live there, to seek refuge in the UK, which was made possible due to Cyprus being a former British colony. Since then, the number of Turkish immigrants has been increasing, and there are currently 70,000cite web|author= [http://www.zft-online.de Center for Studies on Turkey] , University of Essen|publisher=Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association|url=http://www.tusiad.org/haberler/basin/ab/9.pdf|title=The European Turks: Gross Domestic Product, Working Population, Entrepreneurs and Household Data|format=PDF|accessdate=2007-01-06|date=2003|quote=Table 4: Turkish Population and Naturalised Turks in the EU, 2002, on page 8] – 100,000cite web|author= [http://turkishembassylondon.org Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in London] |url=http://turkishembassylondon.org/canon/turks.htm|title=Turks in Britain|format=HTML|accessdate=2007-07-09|date=2007] Turkish people living in Britain, they mostly concentrated in London. There are also about 130,000 Turkish Cypriots living in Britain on top of these figures.
North American groups
Some 70,000 people born in
Canadawere living in Britain at the 2001 Census – up slightly from 1991.London dominates the figures, but Scotland also makes an appearance – the nation was a source for emigration to English-speaking Canada. Many young Canadians have found it easier to come to Britain over the years because visa rules favoured people from the old Commonwealthnations with either a parent or grandparent born in the UK. The most popular place for Canadians in the UK is the Hyde Park area in London, where almost 1% of the population originates from Canada. Over 15,000 Canadians reside in Greater Londonand just over 10,000 in South East England, making them the two most popular regions for Canadian emigrants. Compared to the British population in Canada, the Canadian population in Great Britain is minute. In Canada, English people make up one of the two largest ethnic groups, accounting 10 - 25% of the population, and 40% Canada's population has its roots in Britain and Ireland. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/canada.stm] , " see also: Demography of Canada"]
Over 155,000 people of US origin are living in the UK, however America being the diverse country that it is means that only around 80% of this population will classify themselves as white. The largest single local cluster is Mildenhall in
Suffolk– the site of one of the largest US Air Forcebases in the world, a legacy of the Cold Warand Nato co-operation. Beyond that, London is home to many Americans, mostly workers in the City of London. This population is anecdotally thought to be fairly mobile, coming for a few years or just perhaps a few months before departing again. Some of the Americans showing in the figures will be older, ex-servicemen who returned after being based in Britain during World War II. Examples of areas with large percentages of American people are: Mildenhall (17.28%), Chelsea - London (6.53%) and Kensington- London (5.81%). In London, the majority of Americans are rich businessmenand their families which ties in with the strong economic amongst other relations between London and Washington D.C[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/usa.stm] .
Similar to Canada, the USA has a much larger English population there than American in the UK. An extraordinary 36.4 million Americans have British ancestry, with around 1 million being recent immigrants (
Floridabeing a favourable destination for emigration). "See also: English American, Scottish American, Scots-Irish Americanand Welsh American".
106,000 Australia-born people were in Britain in 2001 – four of every 10 of them in London. Many of today's Australian-born in Britain are under-30s who come on work visas after studies as a means of financing a year-long tour of the world. Scotland ranks unusually highly as a destination for Australian-born people, possibly indicating historic family routes. Some people born in Australia will be children of British families who lived abroad, possibly having emigrated in the 1970s, before returning at a later date [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/australia.stm] . The English population in Australia stands at 31.6%, and Scottish at 7.7%.
The presence of
New Zealanders closely mirrors that of Australians with clusters in the capital. Also, many of them are temporary residents whose right to be in the UK is related to Commonwealth ties. Many New Zealanders in Britain are young people who come after studies, some of them staying permanently. New Zealanders and Australians benefit from more relaxed visa rules than other Commonwealth nations. Many come to work in Britain's public services – especially teaching and the NHS. This has caused some consternation back home with the government there concerned about a "brain-drain", 57,916 New Zealanders live in the UK.
Jews arrived in England in 1070 from Rouenfollowing the Norman Invasion. There is mention of them in the Domesday Book. They were expelled in 1290 under the edict of expulsion but a small number returned from 1656 onwards. The vast majority of today’s Jewish community, however, descend from Jews who arrived from Eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. [Norman Davies, The Isles A History 1999 ISBN 0-333-69283-7.]
The first major modern influx of foreign immigrants (into the British Isles) was that of the East European Jews in the period 1885-1905. Fleeing the poverty of the pale of Jewish Settlement in the Russian Empire, as well as fear of persecution, Yiddish speaking Jewish immigrants arrived in a sudden uncontrolled flood, quickly transforming the East End of London and similar districts in other major cities into predominantly Jewish districts. Their numbers - perhaps a hundred thousand - caused the British Government to pass the Aliens Act 1906'. [Aliens Act 1906' (page 822)] It is hard to discern the number of ethnic Jews in the United Kingdom as they are classified as white on census forms. In 2001, however, there were 267,373 practitioners of
Judaismin the United Kingdom.
Pejoratively called "Gypsies"Fact|date=January 2008.
In the 10 years to 2001, there was a doubling of the number of South Africa-born people living in Britain – bringing the total to some 140,000. The majority of these people are concentrated in largely affluent areas of London, the anecdotal evidence being that many are business people working in the City of London. There is, for instance, a South African-born cluster in the Canary Wharf area. University towns such as Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh and Bristol also show significant clusters of South Africa-born. Many young people with British family ties have come over the years to work in the UK, including the public services [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/south_africa.stm] . Like the
USA, Canada, Australiaand New Zealand, South Africa also has more British people living there than they do in the UK.
2001 UK Census
Census 2001 Ethnic Codes
Latin American Briton
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