- Soviet occupation of Hungary
The Soviet occupation of
Hungaryfollowed the defeat of Hungary in World War II, and lasted for 45 years.Celestine Bohlen, [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CEED71539F937A35754C0A966958260 "Evolution in Europe; As Soviets Leave Hungary, Dispute Arises Over the Bill"] , " The New York Times", July 4, 1990]
World War II
In July 1941,
Hungary, a member of Tripartite Pact, took part in Operation Barbarossa, in alliance with Nazi Germany. Hungarian forces fought shoulder to shoulder with the Wehrmacht, and advanced through Soviet Ukraine, deep into Russia, all the way to Stalingrad. By 1942–1943, the tide of the war had turned. The Red Armyliberated the Soviet territory, and advanced westward from its borders to defeat Germany and its allies.
It was in the context of these events that the
Budapest Offensivetook place in September 1944. As the Hungarian army ignored the armistice with the USSR (signed by the government of Miklós Horthyon October 15, 1944), the Soviets fought against the Hungarian troops and their Nazi allies, capturing the capital on February 13, 1945, and continuing military operations until April 4, 1945when the last Nazi forces and the part of Hungarian troops that chose to stay loyal to Germans, despite another armistice (signed by the government of Ferenc Szálasi), were routed out of the country.
Post-war Soviet policies
The Soviets made sure that a post-war government dominated by Communists was installed in the country, before transferring the authority from the occupational force to the Hungarian authorities.
In elections held in November 1945, the
Independent Smallholders' Partywon 57% of the vote. The Hungarian Communist Party, under the leadership of Mátyás Rákosiand Ernő Gerő, received support from only 17% of the population. The Soviet commander in Hungary, Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, refused to allow the Smallholders Party to form a government. Instead Voroshilov established a coalition government with the communists holding some of the key posts. Later Mátyás Rákosi boasted that he had dealt with his partners in the government, one by one, "cutting them off like slices of salami."
The presence of Soviet troops in Hungary was formalized by the 1949 mutual assistance treaty, which granted the Soviet Union rights to a continued military presence, assuring ultimate political control.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Hungarian Revolution of 1956was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the Communist government of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies. After announcing their willingness to negotiate the withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Soviet Politburochanged its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On November 4, 1956, a large joint military force of the Warsaw Pact, led by Moscow, entered Budapestto crush the armed resistance.
The Soviet intervention, codenamed "Operation Whirlwind", was launched by Marshal
Ivan Konev. [UN General Assembly "Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary" (1957) PDF| [http://mek.oszk.hu/01200/01274/01274.pdf Chapter IV. E (Logistical deployment of new Soviet troops), para 181 (p. 56)] |1.47 MiB ] The five Soviet divisions stationed in Hungary before October 23were augmented to a total strength of 17 divisions. [cite book| last = Györkei| first = Jenõ| authorlink = | coauthors = Kirov, Alexandr; Horvath, Miklos| title = Soviet Military Intervention in Hungary, 1956| publisher = Central European University Press| date = 1999| location = New York| url = |pages = 350| id = ISBN 963-9116-36-X ] The 8th Mechanized Army under command of Lieutenant General Hamazasp Babadzhanianand the 38th Army under command of Lieutenant General Hadzhi-Umar Mamsurovfrom the nearby Carpathian Military Districtwere deployed to Hungary for the operation.
At 3:00 a.m. on
November 4, Soviet tanks penetrated Budapest along the Pest side of the Danubein two thrusts—one from the south, and one from the north—thus splitting the city in half. Armored units crossed into Buda, and at 4:25 a.m. fired the first shots at the army barracks on Budaõrsi road. Soon after, Soviet artillery and tank fire was heard in all districts of Budapest. Operation Whirlwind combined air strikes, artillery, and the coordinated tank-infantry action of 17 divisions. By 8:00 am organised defence of the city evaporated after the radio station was seized, and many defenders fell back to fortified positions. Hungarian civilians bore the brunt of the fighting, and it was often impossible for Soviet troops to differentiate military from civilian targets. [UN General Assembly "Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary" (1957) PDF| [http://mek.oszk.hu/01200/01274/01274.pdf Chapter V.C, para 198 (p. 61)] |1.47 MiB ] For this reason, Soviet tanks often crept along main roads firing indiscriminately into buildings. Hungarian resistance was strongest in the industrial areas of Budapest, which were heavily targeted by Soviet artillery and air strikes. [UN General Assembly "Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary" (1957) PDF| [http://mek.oszk.hu/01200/01274/01274.pdf Chapter V. B (The Second Soviet Military Intervention), para 200 (p. 62)] |1.47 MiB ] The last pocket of resistance called for ceasefire on 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 722 Soviet troops had been killed and thousands more were wounded. [Mark Kramer, “The Soviet Union and the 1956 Crises in Hungary and Poland: Reassessments and New Findings”, "Journal of Contemporary History", Vol.33, No.2, April 1998, p.210.] [Péter Gosztonyi, "Az 1956-os forradalom számokban", "Népszabadság" (Budapest), 3 November 1990.]
After the Hungarian Revolution
The crushing of the Hungarian Revolution strengthened Soviet control over the
Eastern Bloc. The Soviets had Imre Nagyreplaced as Prime Minister of Hungary with János Kádár, the leader of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party. Nagy, with a few others, was given sanctuary in the Yugoslav Embassy. In spite of a written safe conduct of free passage by János Kádár, on 22 November 1956, Nagy was arrested by the Soviet forces as he was leaving the Yugoslav Embassy, and taken to Snagov, Romania. Subsequently, the Soviets returned him to Hungary, where he was secretly charged with organizing to overthrow the Hungarian people's democratic state and with treason. Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June, 1958. [Richard Solash, [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/06/3c9b40e0-f493-49d4-a33d-6d93c1580bb1.html "Hungary: U.S. President To Honor 1956 Uprising"] , Radio Free Europe, June 20, 2006] According to Fedor Burlatsky, a Kremlininsider, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchevhad Nagy executed, "as a lesson to all other leaders in socialist countries." [ David Pryce-Jones, [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-156123156.html "What the Hungarians wrought: the meaning of October 1956"] , " National Review", October 23, 2006]
The end of Soviet military presence
In the wake of the
Revolutions of 1989, the Soviet troops - the Southern Group of Forces- started leaving Hungary. By July 1990, some 15,000 Soviet soldiers and their dependents had left, taking about 60,000 of the 560,000 tons of equipment they had stored there. There were 5,750 buildings left on the 60 army camps and 6 air bases maintained by the Soviet Army in Hungary. The Soviets reportedly asked for 50 billion forints (some 800 million US dollars at the time), as compensation for the "Soviet investment" in Hungary; the commander of Soviet troops in Hungary, Col. Gen. Matvei Burlakov, said that the troop withdrawals may be held up if the Hungarians refused to pay.
The remaining 40,000 Soviet troops left Hungary in June 1991.
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9108435 Hungary] ,
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
Peter Hargitai, 29 October 2006: [http://www.huembwas.org/Hirek/BudapestRiot.htm Budapest is a riot!] , at the embassy of Hungary in the United States
* [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/COLDhungarianU.htm Hungarian Uprising] , at
United States Department of State, Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, 2007: Background Note: Hungary
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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