- Bicycle lock
A bicycle lock is a
physical securitydevice used on a bicycle to prevent theft. It is generally used to fasten the bicycle to a bicycle standor other immovable object.
An important difficulty in preventing the theft of a bicycle is that the wheels are easily detachable from the frame, and that unless both wheels and frame are secured, the parts not locked can easily be carried away after being detached. The most secure locking method therefore is to lock the wheels and frame to each other and to an immovable object.
Locking devices vary in size and security; the most secure tending to be the largest, heaviest and least portable. Lesser equipment is used to deter attempts by less skilled and determined thieves. Thus like other security equipment, bicycle locks must compromise between security, portability and cost. Some are made of particularly expensive materials chosen for their acceptable strength and low density.
An alternate defense is the provision of lockable boxes in which the whole bicycle is locked. This also safeguards other equipment such as lamps, tools, spare tubes etc, against all but the most industrious thief, or one equipped with heavy equipment or power tools.
Test standards that rate the effective security of bicycle locks are provided by
Thatchamand Sold Securein the United Kingdom, ART in the Netherlands, SSF in Sweden, and VDS in Germany. Tests carried out by the Cyclists' Touring Clubshowed that all of the locks under test could be broken in less than 42 seconds using either bolt croppers for a cable/chain or a bottle jack for D-locks.cite news|publisher= Cyclists' Touring Club|title=Cycle Magazine : Gone in 42 seconds!|page=42-46|date=Feb-Mar 2008|author=Carlton Reid] cite web|url=http://quickrelease.tv/?p=327|title=Lock it or lose it|publisher=QuickRelease.TV|date=2008-02-14]
U-locks and D-locks
A U-lock is a rigid metal ring in the shape of the letter U. The U part of the lock attaches to a crossbar section, and for this reason they are also called "D-locks." To lock the bicycle, one locks it physically to some other object, such as a bike rack securely in the ground, parking meter or a flagpole. Merely locking the bike frame to the wheel is not recommended because, although it cannot be rolled away, the entire bicycle can still be lifted and carried away.
U-locks are more secure than most other kinds of locking mechanism because they are more resistant to cutting with high-leverage hand tools such as
bolt cutters. However, they are still vulnerable to some types of exploit. For instance, if there is enough space for a thief to fit a jack into the U, the jack can produce enough leverage to break the lock. Like all locks, U-Locks are vulnerable to power tools. Certain Tubular pin tumbler lockU-Locks made in or before 2005 can be easily picked by thieves, so cyclists should avoid these models.
A very similair type of lock, often referred to as an O-lock, or a "bike club", is a retracting shackle lock. This lock may be more protective as it does not leave space for theives to insert tools like a car jack which would burst a normal u-lock.
A chain lock is a lockable chain. It often has a key or a combination lock attached to it. A long enough chain can pass through both wheels, the frame and attach the bicycle to an immovable object.
Chains vary widely in their security level. If the chain is made from basic iron or steel, perhaps bought from a hardware store, it can easily be cut with a relatively inexpensive pair of bolt cutters. Chains specifically designed for locking bicycles are also available. These chains are made of a much harder steel alloys and the links are often shaped in a manner that deters bolt cutters, such as with a hexagonal cross-section. A chain is also a convenient way to secure the cycle's wheels.
A chain is only as strong as its weakest link, which may be the lock. Although a cheap keyed or combination lock would be an appropriate match for a hardware store chain, a specialized chain necessitates a specialized lock such as a mini u-lock. Many chains are far too big and heavy to be practically carried around by a cyclist, so it is common for cyclists to leave such chains permanently at a convenient location, such as near their place of work.
Cablelocks are in many ways similar to chain locks. Cable locks often come with the locking mechanism already permanently integrated. Otherwise, a length of cable with loops on both ends can also be used.
The main advantage of cable locks over chains is the ease of transporting them. Many cable locks are made of spring cable that automatically coils itself when released. Even a straight cable can be coiled by the user into a more manageable shape than a chain.
Simple cable locks, however, are only sufficient for use in low-risk areas. Even the largest diameter unprotected cable can be quickly cut with
bolt cutters. Better cable locks such as the one shown on the right have overlapping steel jackets threaded over the cable. This can make it much harder to cut the central cable.
Many cyclists use a long cable to secure bicycle components (such as the wheels or seat) in conjunction with a bicycle lock or
padlock, which can be used to secure the frame. Special strong cables are available which are made with a loop at each end continuous with the cable, which enable linking with a locking device.
Also, a common defect with cables containing combination locks allows the combination to be deciphered. This is done by peering into the grooves between the disks whilst cycling through the individual numbers on each disk, one at a time.
Also called an O-lock or ring-lock, this is a mechanism mounted on the frame that immobilizes the rear wheel by moving a steel bolt through the spokes to prevent motion. It uses a straight or circular bolt which extends from the housing. This type of lock is common in
Scandinavia, the Netherlands, China, and Japan.
An O-lock prevents riding the bicycle but does not, by itself, secure the bicycle to a stationary object. This type of lock is effective and convenient for securing a bicycle against opportunistic theft, when the bike is left unattended momentarily. It prevents someone from using the bike to steal away with the bike.
The O-lock also conveniently secures the rear wheel: only locking the frame is needed, to secure both the frame and the rear wheel. Some models have an optional cable or chain that plugs in to the body of the lock to enable the bicycle to be secured as well.
Locking skewers replace the existing quick release skewers on a bicycle's wheels and
seatpostclamp (quick release skewers enable removal without tools). This reduces the need to lock these parts of the bike since now their removal requires tools. One type of locking skewer uses the same design as a normal quick release skewer, except after clamping the skewer the (keyed) handle may be removed.
Another type of locking skewer uses a uniquely-shaped nut that can only be turned using the matching socket/key, which is typically a wrench-like tool that is small enough to fit on a keychain. Though expensive, locking skewers provide additional security and convenience. Locking wheels with an additional U-Lock or removing the front wheel and locking it to the frame and rear wheel would provide the highest security. A disadvantage is that if the owner loses the special tool then they will not be able to undo the skewer, and will need to obtain a spare tool from the manufacturer. The same type of uniquely-shaped nut used for the locking skewer can also be found for suspension forks, V-brakes, and solid-axle wheels in addition to regular wheels and seatposts. Manufacturers such as Pitlock and Pinhead offer services to supply additional lock nuts to an existing key number registered by the owner. Even though a determined thief could eventually defeat the skewer's lock nut by using a power tool, e.g. by grinding a screwdriver slot into it or simply cutting it off, locking skewers provide convenient protection against theft of bicycle parts in areas where locked bicycles should not be left unattended for long periods of time.
Less expensive options include replacing standard quick release skewers with skewers that need a standard
hex keyto be opened. Despite hex keys not being very rare, this method still guards the bicycle from casual opportunists, needing the less common tool and more time to be removed. Five-sided hex key skewers exist which bring some of the benefit of a locking skewer at a lower cost (hex keys are usually six-sided). Quicker and cheaper yet, and only effective against thieves unequipped with even a screwdriver, quick-release levers can be tied down by a common hose clamp.
tandards and tests
Test standards that rate the effective security of bicycle locks are provided by
Thatchamand Sold Securein the United Kingdom, ART in the Netherlands, SSF in Sweden, and VDS in Germany.
Sold Secure was set up by the
Northumbria Policeand Essex Policein 1992 with the backing of the Home Office. It is now a not-for-profit corporationowned by the Master Locksmiths Association. Each model of lock tested requires an initial and ongoing annual payments by the manufacturer of several thousand pounds. In the U.K., a Sold Secure certified lock is usually required in order to insurea bicycle against theft, and a lock that passes the tougher Thatcham standards is usually required to insure a motorbike. Sold Secure certify locks with either a Bronze, Silver or Gold rating, corresponding to an attack resistance of 1, 3 and 5 minutes with various tools. [cite web|url=http://www.squirelocks.co.uk/html/soldsecure.htm|title=Sold Secure|publisher=Squire Security]
Tests carried out on behalf of Cycle magazine showed that all of the bicycle locks tested, which had a variety of certifications from Sold Secure, Thatcham, and ART, could be broken in less than 42 seconds.cite news|publisher=Cyclists' Touring Club|title=Cycle Magazine : Gone in 42 seconds!|page=42-46|date=Feb-Mar 2008|author=Carlton Reid] Cables and chains were breached using either small
cable cutters or 36" bolt croppers, and D-locks were breached using a stubby bottle jack. Of the locks tested, five had a Sold Secure Gold rating, varying in price from £25 to £100. Two of these Gold rated locks withstood only 10 seconds of attack. [cite web|url=http://www.quickrelease.tv/pix/lockbreachingtable.jpg|title=Lock breaching table|publisher=QuickRelease.TV|date=2008-02-14]
Tests carried out by Almax Security Chains Ltd. and supervised by
Readers Digesthave shown that most Thatcham and Sold Secure approved motorbike chains can be cut using ordinary bolt croppers. A video of the tests is available online. [cite web|url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VC3hFr8p2ck|title=Various Sold Secure and Thatcham chains chopped|publisher=Almax Security Chains Ltd|date=2006-11-24] In similar tests carried out by Motor Cycle Newsmagazine, Almax chains were the only ones to survive a bolt cropping attack. [cite web|url=http://www.motorcyclenews.com/MCN/News/newsresults/archive/87883/88985/88986/88993/?&R=EPI-88993|publisher=Motor Cycle News|date=2006-02-01|title=MCN chain test videos] [cite web|publisher=Almax Security Chains Ltd|url=http://www.almax-security-chains.co.uk/index.asp?pg=27|title=Almax FAQ] Almax produce a shorter 0.7m version of their chain for bicycles. [cite web|url=http://www.almax-security-chains.co.uk/index.asp?pg=29|title=Almax Series III|publisher=Almax Security Chains Ltd.] The tests included chains from Squire Locks, Luma, ABUS, Oxford Products and Kryptonite.
The Dutch consumer news show Kassa 3 published a four-minute show in which a former bicycle thief removed eight consumer-grade locks from a bike in times ranging from 10 to a maximum of 84 seconds. [cite web|url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G1yImVLW_Q0|title=Kassa3 - 'how to steal a bike'|author=
Jalal Bouzamour|publisher= Kassa (television program)] The locks included those from manufacturers ABUS, Hema and Halfords.
* [http://www.stichtingart.nl/sloten_resultaat.asp Locks tested by ART Foundation]
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