George Whipple


George Whipple

Infobox Scientist
name = George Whipple
birth_date = August 28, 1878
birth_place = Ashland, New Hampshire
death_date = February 1, 1976
death_place =
residence =
citizenship =
nationality = United States
ethnicity =
field = medicine
work_institutions = University of California
alma_mater = Johns Hopkins University
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for = liver therapy in cases of anemia
influences =
influenced =
prizes =Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934
religion =
footnotes =

George Hoyt Whipple (August 28, 1878 – February 1, 1976) was an American physician, biomedical researcher, and medical school educator and administrator. Whipple shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934 with George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anemia."

Whipple was born to Ashley Cooper Whipple and Frances Anna Hoyt in Ashland, New Hampshire. He was the son and grandson of physicians. Whipple attended Phillips Academy and then Yale University from which he graduated with a B.A. degree in 1900. He attended medical school at the Johns Hopkins University. from which he received the M.D. degree in 1905.

After graduation. Whipple worked in the pathology department at Hopkins until he went to Panama, during the time of the construction of the Panama Canal, as pathologist to the Ancon Hospital in 1907-08. Whipple returned to Baltimore, serving successively as Assistant, Instructor, Associate and Associate Professor in Pathology at The Johns Hopkins University between 1910 and 1914.

In 1914, Whipple was appointed Professor of Research Medicine and Director of the Hooper Foundation for Medical Research at the University of California Medical School. He was dean of that medical school in 1920 and 1921.

At the urging of Abraham Flexner, who had done pioneering studies of medical education, and University of Rochester President Rush Rhees, Whipple agreed in 1921 to become Dean of the newly funded and yet-to-be-built medical school in Rochester, New York. Whipple thus became Professor and Chairman of Pathology and the founding Dean of the new School of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of Rochester. Whipple served the School as the Dean until 1954 and remained at Rochester for the rest of his life. Many at the university remember him as a superb teacher.Fact|date=May 2008 George Hoyt Whipple died in 1976 at the age of 97 and is interred in Rochester's Mount Hope Cemetery.

Whipple's research

Whipple's main research was concerned with anemia and with the physiology and pathology of the liver. He won the Nobel Prize for his discovery that liver fed to anemic dogs reverses the effects of the anemia. This remarkable discovery led directly to successful liver treatment of pernicious anemia by Minot and Murphy. Before that time, pernicious anemia had been truly pernicious in that it was invariably fatal.

In presenting the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934, Professor I. Holmgren of the Nobel committee observed [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1934/press.html] that "Of the three prize winners, it was Whipple who first occupied himself with the investigations for which the prize is now awarded. ... Whipple's experiments were planned exceedingly well, and carried out very accurately, and consequently their results can lay claim to absolute reliability. These investigations and results of Whipple's gave Minot and Murphy the idea that an experiment could be made to see whether favorable results might also be obtained in the case of pernicious anemia...by making use of the foods of the kind that Whipple had found to yield favorable results in his experiments regarding anemia from loss of blood." Whipple was also the first person to describe an unknown disease he called lipodystrophia intestinalis because there were abnormal
lipid deposits in the small intestine wall. [http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/gwhipple.html] Whipple also correctly pointed to the bacterial cause of the disease in his original report in 1907. The condition has since come to be called Whipple's disease.

References

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Ortiz-Hidalgo
first=Carlos
authorlink=
year=
month=
title= [George H. Whipple. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934. Whipple's disease, pernicious anemia, and other contributions to medicine]
journal=Gaceta médica de México
volume=138
issue=4
pages=371–6
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 12200882
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Raju
first=T N
authorlink=
year=1999
month=Jan
title=The Nobel chronicles. 1934: George Hoyt Whipple (1878-1976); George Richard Minot (1885-1950); William Perry Murphy (1892-1987)
journal=Lancet
volume=353
issue=9148
pages=247
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 9923916
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Sparkman
first=R S
authorlink=
year=1995
month=Sep
title=Two physicians named Whipple
journal=Am. J. Surg.
volume=170
issue=3
pages=306–7
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 7661304
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =
doi=10.1016/S0002-9610(05)80024-8

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Miller
first=L L
authorlink=
year=1995
month=
title=George Hoyt Whipple - August 28, 1878-February 2, 1976
journal=Biographical memoirs. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
volume=66
issue=
pages=371–93
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 11616328
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Carlsson
first=M
authorlink=
coauthors=Wiberg J
year=1989
month=Apr
title= [The man behind the syndrome: George Hoyt Whipple. He was the first one to theorize on infectious causes of a rare systemic disease]
journal=Lakartidningen
volume=86
issue=14
pages=1271–4
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 2468979
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Diggs
first=L W
authorlink=
year=1976
month=Nov
title=Dr. George Hoyt Whipple
journal=The Johns Hopkins medical journal
volume=139
issue=5
pages=196–200
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 792552
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Harvey
first=A M
authorlink=
year=1976
month=
title=Teacher and distinguished pupil: William Henry Welch and George Hoyt Whipple
journal=Johns Hopkins Med. J. Suppl.
volume=
issue=
pages=39–48
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 801545
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Rijlant
first=P
authorlink=
year=1976
month=
title= [Note on the life and work of Professor George Heyt Whipple, foreign honorary member (1878-1976)]
journal=Bull. Mem. Acad. R. Med. Belg.
volume=131
issue=3-4-5
pages=139–43
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 798621
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Young
first=L E
authorlink=
year=1976
month=
title=George Hoyt Whipple 1878-1976
journal=Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians
volume=89
issue=
pages=34–7
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 798387
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Kenéz
first=
authorlink=
year=1968
month=Sep
title= [George Hoyt Whipple, nature lover and Nobel prize winner is 90 years old]
journal=Orvosi hetilap
volume=109
issue=36
pages=1994–8
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4886380
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Sulek
first=K
authorlink=
year=1968
month=Apr
title= [Nobel prize in 1934 for G.H. Whipple, G.R. Minot and W.P. Murphy for discovery of treatment of anemia with liver extracts]
journal=Wiad. Lek.
volume=21
issue=7
pages=627–9
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4876155
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=CORNER
first=G W
authorlink=
year=1963
month=Jul
title=George Hoyt Whipple, Nobel Prize Pathologist
journal=Transactions & studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia
volume=31
issue=
pages=40–1
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 14044626
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=BIBBY
first=B G
authorlink=
year=1951
month=Dec
title=George Hoyt Whipple, M. D: a benefactor of dentistry
journal=The Journal of the American College of Dentists
volume=18
issue=4
pages=252–7
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 14897600
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

External links

* [http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/gwhipple.html National Academy of Sciences biography]
* [http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1934/whipple-bio.html Nobel biography]
* [http://www.whipple.org/blaine/georgehoyt.html Other biography]
*


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