Embryogenesis


Embryogenesis

[
http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/About/primer/genetics_cell.html NCBI] .] Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. It starts with the fertilization of the ovum, egg, which, after fertilization, is then called a zygote. The zygote undergoes rapid mitotic divisions, the formation of two exact genetic replicates of the original cell, with no significant growth (a process known as cleavage) and cellular differentiation, leading to development of an embryo. It occurs in both animal and plant development, but this article addresses the common features among different animals.

The zygote

The egg cell (and hence the fertilized egg) is always asymmetric, having an "animal pole" (future ectoderm and mesoderm), two of three primitive tissue types, and a "vegetal pole" (future endoderm), it is also covered with different protective envelopes. The first envelope, the one which is in contact with the membrane of the egg, is made of glycoproteins and is called vitelline membrane (zona pellucida in mammals). Different taxa show different cellular and acellular envelopes outside of the vitelline membrane.

Cleavage

The zygote undergoes rapid cell divisions with no significant growth, producing a cluster of cells that is the same size as the original zygote. The different cells derived from cleavage, up to the blastula stage, are called blastomeres. Depending mostly on the amount of yolk in the egg, the cleavage can be holoblastic (total) or meroblastic (partial)ref|Campbell.

Holoblastic cleavage occurs in animals with little yolk in their eggs, such as humans and other mammals who receive nourishment as embryos from the mother, via placenta or milk. On the other hand, meroblastic cleavage occurs in animals whose eggs have more yolk; i.e. birds and reptiles. Because cleavage is impeded in the vegetal pole, there is a very uneven distribution and size of cells, being more and bigger at the animal pole of the zygoteref|Campbell.

In holoblastic eggs the first cleavage always occurs along the vegetal-animal axis of the egg, the second cleavage is perpendicular to the first. From here the spatial arrangement of blastomeres can follow various patterns, due to different planes of cleavage, in various organisms:

Blastula and Gastrula

After the cleavage has produced over 100 cells, the embryo is called a blastularef|Campbell. The blastula is usually a spherical layer of cells (the blastoderm) surrounding a fluid-filled or yolk-filled cavity (the blastocoel).

Mammals at this stage form a structure called the blastocystref|NCBI, characterized by an inner cell mass that is not present in the blastula. The blastocyst must not be confused with the blastula; even though they are similar in structure their cells have different fates.

During gastrulation cells migrate to the interior of the blastula, consequently forming two (in diploblastic animals) or three (triploblastic) germ layers. The embryo during this process is called a gastrula. The germ layers are referred to as the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. In diploblastic animals only the ectoderm and the endoderm are present ref|Campbell.

*Among the different animals, different combinations of the following processes occur to place the cells in the interior of the embryo:
**Epiboly - expansion of one cell sheet over other cellsref|NCBI
**Ingression - cells move with pseudopodsref|NCBI
**Invagination - forming the mouth, anus, and archenteronref|Campbell
**Delamination - the external cells divide, leaving the daughter cells in the cavityref|NCBI
**Polar proliferation

*Other major changes during gastrulation:
**Heavy RNA transcription using embryonic genes; up to this point the RNAs used were maternal (stored in the unfertilized egg).
**Cells start major differentiation processes, losing their pluripotentiality.

In most animals, a blastopore is formed at the point where cells are entering the embryo. Two major groups of animals can be distinguished according to the blastopore's fate. In deuterostomes the anus forms from the blastopore, while in protostomes it develops into the mouth.

Organogenesis

At some point after the different germ layers are defined, organogenesis begins. The first stage in vertebrates is called neurulation, where the neural plate folds forming the neural tuberef|Campbell. Other common organs or structures which arise at this time include the heart and somites, but from now on embryogenesis follows no common pattern among the different taxa of the animal kingdom.

In most animals organogenesis along with morphogenesis will result in a larva. The hatching of the larva, which must then undergo metamorphosis, marks the end of embryonic development.

ee also

*Mammalian embryogenesis
*Drosophila embryogenesis
*Plant embryogenesis
*Cdx2 gene
*Homeobox genes

References

# [http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/About/primer/genetics_cell.html What is a cell?] 2004. A Science Primer: A Basic Introduction to the Science Underlying NCBI Resources. NCBI.
# Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B.; Biology Benjamin Cummings, Pearson Education Inc 2002.

External links

* [http://www.ivanbelchev.com/myembryo Development of the embryo] (retrieved November 20, 2007)
* [http://yourembryo.blogspot.com/ Human Embryo] (retrieved November 20, 2007)
* [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/suppl/10.1111/j.1432-0436.2006.00114.x/suppl_file/Movie+S3.mov Video] of embryogenesis of the frog Xenopus laevis from shortly after fertilization until the hatching of the tadpole; acquired by MRI ( [http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-0436.2006.00114.x DOI of paper] )


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • embryogenesis — embryogenesis. См. эмбриогенез. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Embryogenesis — gemalo formavimasis statusas T sritis gyvūnų raida, augimas, ontogenezė, embriologija atitikmenys: lot. Embryogenesis ryšiai: platesnis terminas – pagrindiniai terminai siauresnis terminas – brachiomerizmas siauresnis terminas – embrionas… …   Veterinarinės anatomijos, histologijos ir embriologijos terminai

  • Embryogenesis — gemalo formavimasis statusas T sritis embriologija atitikmenys: lot. Embryogenesis ryšiai: platesnis terminas – organo atsiradimas bei formavimasis siauresnis terminas – kūno susiskirstymas į segmentus siauresnis terminas – žiauninių segmentų… …   Medicininės histologijos ir embriologijos vardynas

  • embryogenesis — embriogenezė statusas T sritis augalininkystė apibrėžtis Gemalo rutuliojimasis iš zigotos. atitikmenys: angl. embryogenesis; embryogeny rus. развитие зародыша; эмбриогенез ryšiai: sinonimas – gemalo raida …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • embryogenesis — 1. (General) Development of an embryo. 2. (In plants) In vitro formation of plants from plant tissues, through a pathway closely resembling normal embryogeny from the zygote. Somatic cell embryogenesis is an alteRNAtive technique. The generation… …   Glossary of Biotechnology

  • embryogenesis — noun Date: 1830 the formation and development of the embryo • embryogenetic adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • embryogenesis — n. [Gr. embryon, fetus; genesis, beginning] Formation and development of an embryo from an egg; embrogeny …   Dictionary of invertebrate zoology

  • embryogenesis — The processes leading to the development of an embryo from egg to completion of the embryonic stage …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • embryogenesis — em·bry·o·gen·e·sis (ĕm brē ō jĕnʹĭ sĭs) also em·bry·og·e·ny ( ŏjʹə nē) n. The development and growth of an embryo.   em bry·o·genʹic ( jĕnʹĭk) or em bry·o·ge·netʹic ( ō jə nĕtʹĭk) adj. * * * …   Universalium

  • embryogenesis — noun The process by which an embryo is formed and develops …   Wiktionary


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