- Oyster mushroom
name = Oyster mushroom
status = secure
| image_width = 200px
image_caption = Fruiting body of the Oyster mushroom in the
genus = "
species = "P. ostreatus"
binomial = "Pleurotus ostreatus"
binomial_authority = Champ. Jura. Vosg. 1: 112, 1872mycomorphbox
name = Pleurotus ostreatus
whichGills = decurrent
capShape = no
capShape2 = offset
The Oyster mushroom, or "Pleurotus ostreatus", is a common mushroom prized for its edibility. Long cultivated in Asia, it is now cultivated around the world for food. It is related to the similarly cultivated "king oyster mushroom". Oyster mushrooms can also be used industrially for
Both the Latin and common name refer to the shape of the fruiting body. The latin "pleurotus" (sideways) refers to the sideways-growth of the stem with respect to the cap while the latin "ostreatus" (and the English common name,
oyster) refers to the shape of the cap which resembles the bi-valve of the same name. Many also believe that the name is fitting due to the flavor resemblance to oysters.
In Chinese, they are called "píng gū" (; literally "flat mushroom").
The oyster is one of the more commonly sought wild mushrooms, though it can also be cultivated on straw and other media. It often has the scent of anise due to the presence of
*Cap: 5-25 cm broad, fan or oyster-shaped; Natural specimens range from white to gray or tan to dark-brown; margin inrolled when young, smooth and often somewhat lobed or wavy. Flesh white, firm, varies in thickness due to stipe arrangement.
*Gills: Gills are white to cream, descend stalk if present. If so, stipe off-center with lateral attachment to wood.
*Spores: The spores form a white to lilac-gray print on dark media.
*Stipe: Often absent. When present it is short and thick.
*Odor: Often has a mild scent of anise.
There are no poisonous lookalikes that grow in North America, however
Omphalotus nidiformisis a toxic lookalike that is found in Australia and Japan.
The Oyster Mushroom is wide-spread in temperate and subtropical forests throughout the world. It is a
saprotrophthat acts as a primary decomposer on wood.
The mushroom usually is not fussy where it grows,however it does not like to grow near
stinging nettles. This is probably due to the high acidity of the nettles.
The oyster mushroom is frequently used in Japanese and Chinese cookery as a
delicacy: it is frequently served on its own, sometimes stuffed, or in stir-fryrecipes with soy sauce.
Oyster mushrooms are a natural source of
statindrugs. Studies have shown that they typically contain 0.4% to 2.7% statins on a dry weight basis. [http://www.znaturforsch.com/ac/v58c/s58c0062.pdf Z. Naturforsch Study] . A number of studies on lab animals have shown that adding Pleurotus to the diet can reduce cholesterol under some conditions.
The oyster mushroom is also one of the few known carnivorous mushrooms. Its mycelia can kill and digest
nematodes. This is believed to be a way to obtain nitrogen.
Oyster mushrooms contain a small amount of
arabitolwhich can cause gastrointestinal distress in some people. Arabitol is a sugar alcohol similar to xylitol, manitol and sorbitol; these sugar alcohols are widely used food additives and can also have laxative effectives in susceptible individuals.
* [http://www.mushroominfo.com/?action=76 Culinary information regarding oyster mushrooms]
* [http://www.oystermushrooms.co.uk Oyster Mushrooms]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8810086&dopt=Abstract The effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on cholesterol absorption]
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См. также в других словарях:
oyster mushroom — n. any of various fan shaped mushrooms having gills, esp. an edible one (Pleurotus ostreatus) with a short, pale colored stem, that grows on tree trunks * * * … Universalium
oyster mushroom — n. any of various fan shaped mushrooms having gills, esp. an edible one (Pleurotus ostreatus) with a short, pale colored stem, that grows on tree trunks … English World dictionary
oyster mushroom — noun edible agaric with a soft greyish cap growing in shelving masses on dead wood • Syn: ↑oyster fungus, ↑oyster agaric, ↑Pleurotus ostreatus • Hypernyms: ↑agaric • Member Holonyms: ↑Pleurotus, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
oyster mushroom — /ˈɔɪstə mʌʃrum/ (say oystuh mushroohm) noun a type of edible mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, found on living or dead wood, whose shape and collective appearance is reminiscent of the oyster … Australian English dictionary
oyster mushroom. — See oyster cap. [1870 75] * * * … Universalium
oyster mushroom — noun an edible fungus with a greyish brown oyster shaped cap and a very short or absent stem. [Pleurotus ostreatus.] … English new terms dictionary
oyster mushroom. — See oyster cap. [1870 75] … Useful english dictionary
oyster mushroom — noun Date: 1875 an edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) that grows especially on deciduous trees and deadwood … New Collegiate Dictionary
oyster mushroom — noun A common mushroom prized for its edibility and lack of confusing look alikes … Wiktionary
oyster mushroom — coo oys′ter mush room n. an edible, brownish gray to white mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, that grows in clusters on fallen trees or their stumps • Etymology: 1870–75 … From formal English to slang