While working at Gallaudet University in the 1970s, William Stokoe felt that American Sign Language was a language in its own right; with its own independent syntax and grammar. Stokoe classified the language into five parts which included: handshapes, orientation, location, movement, and facial expression, in which much of the meaning of the sign is clarified as well as the grammar of the sentence expressed. Some sign languages, such as American Sign Language, have been promoted as the traditional way of communication for deaf people. Manualism is combined with oralism as the contemporary technique for the education of deaf students.
- ^ Douglas C. Baynton. Forbidden signs: American culture and the campaign against sign language. University of Chicago Press, 1996. p. 4. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=CURQquUqiGwC&pg=PA4&dq=%22manualism%22+-+the+use+of+sign+language+in+the+class&hl=en&ei=Pe6DTbTCOciHhQfVkrG9BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%22manualism%22%20-%20the%20use%20of%20sign%20language%20in%20the%20class&f=false. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
- ^ Bauman, H-Dirksen, ed. Open Your Eyes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008. 15.
- ^ H-Dirksen L. Bauman, Jennifer L. Nelso. Signing the body poetic: essays on American Sign Language literature. University of California Press, 2006. p. 242. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=c7dosbsKKosC&pg=PA242&dq=Manualism+sign+language+be+considered+as+more+natural&hl=en&ei=g_CDTZH3A9GLhQeMzt3BBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Manualism%20sign%20language%20be%20considered%20as%20more%20natural&f=false. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
- ^ J. Madhubala. Adjustment Problems of Hearing Impaired. Discovery Publishing House, 2004. p. 11. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HZXfG7pQaNMC&pg=PA11&dq=Manualism+is+the+technique+and+education+for+the+deaf+students+that+is+mostly+in+use+today&hl=en&ei=Su-DTf75EcOLhQfkqYzBBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CFMQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
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