Infobox Ethnic group
group = Anglo-Africans
poptime = 2,000,000+ (est.)
region1 = flag|South Africa
region2 = flag|Zimbabwe
region3 = flag|Zambia
region4 = flag|Namibia
region5 = flag|Kenya
region6 = flag|Botswana
region7 = flag|Nigeria
region8 = flag|Tanzania
region9 = flag|Lesotho
region10 = flag|Swaziland
Protestant(Mostly Anglican), Roman Catholic, other
South African English
related = British, English, Scottish, Welsh, Irish,
Afrikaners, French, Walloons, Dutch
Anglo-Africans are people of primarily
Sub-Saharan Africawhose first language is English. Most are of British descent, although they can be of any ancestry, with Irish, French Huguenot, Jewish, and Italian being rather prevalent minority ones. Most live in Southern Africa.
Ethnicity is a politically loaded and historically painful topic in South Africa, and therefore many South Africans do not speak of it. While some conservative English speakers still cherish the nametag "British", others view it as an obsolete when speaking of ethnicity. The phrase Anglo African is today used, somewhat loosely, to refer English speakers in Africa, particularly Sub-Saharan AfricaFact|date=June 2008. The largest number live in
South Africaand other countries in Southern Africa - Zimbabwe, Namibia, Zambia, Tanzania, Lesotho, and Swaziland. A sizeable number also come from Kenyain East Africa. A few are from Nigeriain West Africa.
Afrikaners, they have not constituted a coherent political or cultural entity in South Africa, hence the absence of a commonly accepted term, although 'English South African' or 'English-speaking South African' are much used.
Afrikaansterm for Anglo African is "rooinek", meaning "red neck" (derogatory depending on context [http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Valley/8414/pc.htm] ). It arose as a nickname in the early days of settlement, as a reference to the then red collars of British military uniforms, from the red markings the British farmers put on their imported Merino breed of sheep, or to the fact they were sunburnt easily, because unlike the Afrikaners, they were new to Africa, and so dressed inappropriately, i.e. wore inadequate hats, e.g. pith helmets, or no hat at all. This term is not related to the American term " redneck" (a derogatory term for certain segments of rural North Americans); the former probably refers to a sunburnt neck, while the latter North American term is derived from American history.
Although there were small temporary British settlements along the
West African coast from the 1700s onwards, British settlement in Africa began in earnest only at the end of the eighteenth century, in the Cape of Good Hope.
British settlement in the Cape gained momentum following the success of the second British attempt to annex the Cape from the Dutch East India Company, and the subsequent encouragement of settlers in "Settler Country" in the
Eastern Capein an effort to consolidate the colony's eastern border following the Cape Frontier Warsagainst the Xhosa.
Britain expanded the Cape Colony northwards into
Khoikhoiand Sanlands. Many Britons settled in the region, but developed a culture distinct from that in Britain; a culture which had similarities to developing Australian and Afrikaner cultures. Livingstone famously explored southern Africa, and was the first European to set eyes on Victoria Falls. He is a key character in Anglo African history, being one of the first well-known Britons to believe his heart was in Africa.In the late nineteenth century, the discovery of goldin the Witwatersrandand diamonds in Kimberley further encouraged colonisation by Britons, Australians, Americans and Canadians. Following the defeat of the Afrikaners after the First and Second Boer Wars, Britain annexed the Boer Republics of the Transvaaland Orange Free State. Cecil John Rhodesdreamt of a British Africa from Cape Townto Cairo, and the BSAC conquered Mashonaland, Matabeleland and some settlements further north, which became known as Rhodesia(now Zimbabweand Zambia). The search for gold drove expansion north into the Rhodesias (now Zimbabwe, Zambiaand Malawi). Simultaneously, British settlers began expansion into the fertile uplands (often called the " White Highlands") of British East Africa (now Kenya and Tanzania). Black Nationalist guerrilla forces aided by Soviet expertise and weapons soon drove the colonists into a fortress mentality which led to the break-off of ties with perceived collaborationist governments in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations. The result was a series of conflicts which eventually led to a reduced presence of British Africans due to emigration and natural wastage. Many were murdered, tens of thousands driven off their lands and property, with many of those remaining being intimidated and threatened by the government and political and paramilitary organizations. As a result, over 2,000,000 British Africans were killed, pushed out, deported or went into exile from the original British colonies and few thousands of British settlers left during and after independence. In spite of it, in all of these colonies, a number of well connected extremely wealthy settlers remained to live following independence and the introduction of black rule in the second half of the twentieth century as the birth rate of Anglo-Africans increased.
Resistance to the British government’s adopted policy of No Independence Before Majority Rule (
NIBMAR), resulted in the Unilateral Declaration of Independence ( UDI) of the Rhodesian government on 11 November 1965. The NIBMAR policy was perceived as irresponsible by supporters of the governing Rhodesian Frontparty, led by Ian Smith. Not long after UDI a protracted Bush Warwas fought in Rhodesia until 1979.
Most English-speaking whites in South Africa supported the United Party of
Jan Smuts, which favoured close relations with the United Kingdomand the Commonwealth, rather than the Afrikaner Nationalists, many of whom, like John Vorster, supported Nazi Germanyduring the Second World War.
Many opposed moves to make the country a
republic, voting "no" in the 1960 referendum, but following the establishment of a republic in 1961 (and South Africa's consequent withdrawal) from the Commonwealth, other English-speaking whites began to support the National Party.
In spite of being perceived as more politically liberal than
Afrikaners, in the 1992 referendum in which whites were asked whether or not they supported the negotiated reforms begun by State President F.W. de Klerktwo years earlier, election analysts reported that support to dismantle apartheidamong the Afrikanerswas actually slightly higher than among English speakers. Countrystudies [http://countrystudies.us/south-africa/36.htm Toward Democracy] ] South Africa became fully democratic in 1994.
Efforts are being made by a few Anglo-Africans to secure minority rights. However, the vast majority of are supporting South Africa's official opposition, the Democratic Alliance.
In South Africa, Anglo-African is a term which is commonly replaced by English-speaking White South African.
Fearful of crime and the possibility of South Africa's adopting a policy like that in Zimbabwe, a significant number of Anglo-Africans have emigrated to countries such as the
United Kingdom, Canada, United States, Australia, New Zealandand Singapore, where many teach ESL. Many Anglo-Africans from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania have even settled Mozambiqueafter the time it became a member of Commonwealth in 1992 and Namibiawhich came under South African rule after the First World War.
A large number of young Anglo-Africans are taking advantage of
working holiday visas made available by the United Kingdomand other Commonwealth countries to gain work experience. The favourable exchange rate with the South African Rand ( ZAR) also increases the attractiveness of international experience.
Anglo Africans generally enjoy an outdoor lifestyle and fondness for sport. The "
braai" [http://www.braaiday.co.za] , although originally Afrikaans, is a popular way to gather friends. Another pastime is that of visiting game reserves, hiking and camping. There is a particular appreciation of country life and farms are often bought as weekend retreats. Farmers themselves generally prefer holiday houses at the coast. In other ways the culture of Anglo-Africans is more Anglo than African; afternoon tea - in fact, tea at any time of day - is still widespread as are pastimes such as gardening and reading. Families who live in the country are usually familiar with previously practical pastimes such as riding and shooting. Riding is popular in town and country alike and drag-hunting is carried out by the Cape Hunt and the Rand Hunt. Polois more accesible in South Africa than in the United Kingdom and very popular amongst farmers. The most avidly followed (and participated in) sports are rugby, cricketand tennis. Many Anglo-Africans will follow South African as well as British news and watch BBCand Sky Newsrather than CNN, and prefer British humoras expressed by Fawlty Towersand the Blackadderseries. There is a widespread appreciation for british things and a certain cachet attached to British books, paints, clothes, fabric, magazines, stationary, china and toys; most Anglo-Africans travel to Britain at least once in their lives where they are likely to have many relatives and friends. Most, having been brought up on British nursery rhymes, history, and literature, are more conversant with Britain and its ways than is usually natural for people who have never lived there. An idiosyncracy of Anglo-Africans is that should you ask them where their family is from, they will generally answer "Norfolk" or "Hampshire" or "Aberdeen" as the case may be, rather than "Mombasa" or "the Eastern Cape" where they grew up, even if their families came to Africa a century ago.
Many Anglo Africans speak a unique dialect of English. However even in South Africa there are geographical differences in the English that Anglo-Africans speak; most can clearly tell the difference between the heavier accent of Durban, Cape Town's stereotypically disdainful drawl and the near-
Received Pronunciationof Johannesburg and the Natal Midlands.Fact|date=August 2008 Although the South African slang listed below is true of many young South Africans it would be unusual to hear it used amongst older Anglo-Africans or people who went to private schools where it would be thought charmingly provincial and only used in jest. Anglo-Africans who use Received Pronunciationwill generally have an aversion to excessive South Africanisms in their speech as well as for regional British accents.
There are influences from
Cape Malays, Afrikaners and the Bantu languages, as well as Europe and Asia. The common greeting 'Howzit!' comes from 'How is it?' and can be likened to the US 'Howdy', the Australian 'G'Day', the Irish 'Howya?' or the recent British 'All right?'. The considerable Afrikaans influence can be seen from words such as braai, trek, lekker and ja having become common usage centuries ago. In South Africa many Zulu and Xhosa words (such as shongololo, muti, ubuntu etc.) are used.
Original South African English coinages
Rhodes Universitysituated in Grahamstownhouses the Dictionary Unit for South African English [http://www.ru.ac.za/affiliates/dsae/] . The fourth edition of the Dictionary of South African English was released in 1991, and the Oxford Dictionary released its South African English dictionary in 2002. The English Academy of Southern Africa was founded in 1961. It is an association dedicated to promoting the effective use of English as a dynamic language in Southern Africa. [http://www.englishacademy.co.za/]
Anglo Africans have a long literary tradition, and have produced a number of notable
novelists and poets, including Doris Lessing, J.M. Coetzee, Guy Butler, Olive Schreiner, (Ignatius) Roy(ston) Dunnachie Campbell and Denis Vincent Brutus. A traditional Anglo-African storybook is Sir Percy Fitzpatrick's " Jock of the Bushveld", which describes his journey as a wagondriver with his dog Jock in the Bush. Other significant writers are Nadine Gordimer, Alan Paton, Peter Godwinand Cathy Buckle.
Theatre is probably the art form most influenced by Anglo Africans. (Harold) Athol (Lannigan) Fugard is a significant playwright. He was born of an Irish Catholic father and an Afrikaner mother and has always described himself as an Afrikaner, but he wrote in English to reach a larger audience. As for music it is typically Anglo. There is
Dave Matthews, who emigrated to the United States, and is therefore more generally identified as American. Johnny Cleggis an influential musician, though his music is more Zuluthan Anglo. Wrex Tarrperformed the distinctly Rhodesiancomedy song "Cocky Robin" based on Chilapalapa. John Edmondwas a very popular singer, songwriter, entertainer and storyteller during the Rhodesian Bush War. Clem Tholetwas an inspiring Rhodesianfolk singer, guitarist & songwriter during the Bush War.
Rugby union, cricketand golfare generally considered to be the most popular sports among Anglo Africans. The contribution of Anglo-Africans to South African rugby has continued to the present; other notables include both coaches to lead the Springboks to victory in the Rugby World Cup, Kitch Christie(1995) and Jake White(2007), as well as Percy Montgomery, the Springboks' all-time leader in appearances and points. Champion golfers include Nick Priceand Gary Player, while top cricket players include (Robert) Graeme Pollock and his nephew Shaun Pollock. Regards swimming, there is Olympic winner Kirsty Coventryand world-record holder Jonty Skinner. Anglo-Africans have also had an influence on motorsport: Rory Byrneand Gordon Murrayare famous Formula 1 car designers and some of the most successful designers of all time. Additionally Jody Scheckterwon the F1 world championship, and his son Tomas Scheckter(born 21 September 1980) is a South African racing driver, born in Monte Carlo, currently competing in the Indy Racing League and the A1 Grand Prix series. Anglo-Africans have also had notable success in African rallying, while former Rhodesia in particular has produced several world champion motorcycle road racers including Jim Redmanand Kork Ballington. Cricketin Africa and particularly Zimbabwe (which has a relatively small proportion of Anglo-AfricansFact|date=July 2008) has been dominated by White Zimbabweans. Many of their best players include Andy Flower, his brother Grant, Heath Streak, Brendan Taylorand Ray Price. Cricket is also heavily dominated by Anglo-Africans in South Africa. Graeme Smith, Mark Boucherand Neil Mckenziecurrently play for South Africa alongside many other White players in domestic competition.
(Alphabetically by surname)
Jani Allan(born 1953), journalist
Roy Bennett(born 1957), politician
William Boyd, writer
Robert Broom, doctor and paleontologist
Cathy Buckle, author of "African Tears"
*Guy Butler, poet
Rory Byrne(born 1944), Formula 1car designer
*(Ignatius) Roy(ston) Dunnachie Campbell (1901-1957), poet
*George "Kitch" Christie (1940–1998), rugby coach who took the Springboks to victory in the
1995 Rugby World Cup
Johnny Clegg(also known as "The White Zulu"; born 1953), musician
Kirsty Coventry(born 1983), swimmer
John Cranko, South-African born choreographer
Kevin Curren, tennis player
Chelsy Davy, Zimbabwean girlfriend of Prince Harryof Britain
Richard Dawkins(born March 26, 1941), biologist, author of " The God Delusion"
Rufane Shaw Donkin, founder of Port Elizabeth
John Edmond, singer, songwriter, entertainer and storyteller [http://www.johnedmond.co.za/]
Ruth First, South African communist
Percy Fitzpatrick, transport rider, classic writer
Bruce Fordyce, ultra-marathon runner
*(Harold) Athol (Lannigan) Fugard, writer, actor
Lisa Fugard, writer, actor [http://www.laweekly.com/art+books/books/out-of-south-africa/12491/]
Alexandra Fuller(born 1969), author of Rhodesian memoir "Don't Lets Go to the Dogs Tonight"
Peter Godwin (writer), Rhodesian soldier, journalist
Nadine Gordimer(born 1923), novelist and writer, Nobel Prize in Literature 1991
Richard E. Grant(born 1957), actor
William Hamilton(1891-1917), poet, educated at the South African College (now University of Cape Town), where he subsequently taught English and Philosophy [http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poet/147.html]
Emily Hobhouse, activist for Afrikaners in concentration camps
Trevor Immelman(born 1979), golfer
Glynn Isaac, palaeoanthropologist [http://au.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_781535173/Isaac_Glyn_Llywelyn.html]
Butch James, Rugby World Cup-winning Springbok
Sid James, actor
Leander Starr Jameson, 1st Baronet, KCMG (February 9, 1853 – November 26, 1917), also known as "Doctor Jim", medical doctor and colleague of Cecil John Rhodes
J D Rheinalt Jones, a former director of the South African Institute of Race Relations [http://library.queensu.ca/inforef/microfilm/rjcollection.htm]
Dick King, famous transport rider [http://southcoast.kzn.org.za/south_coast/about/6.html] [http://southcoast.kzn.org.za/south_coast/resources/image/0/20.xml?method=version&image.size=normal_size]
John Kirk, leader of Kenya settlers
Louis Leakey, palaeoanthropologist
Richard Leakey(born 1944), palaeoanthropologist and conservationist
Bernard Leeman, Tanzanian military commander
Tony Leon(born 1956), politician
Doris Lessing(born 1919), author
William H.C. Lloyd, Archdeacon of DurbanAnglican Clergyman and cousin of Lord Lichfield and Lord Mostyn
Lucy Lloyd(b. 1834) Philologist and Explorer
Verney Lovett Cameron, explorer
Dave Matthews(born 1967), musician (emigrated to United States, more generally identified as American)
Alexander McCall Smith(born 1948), author
Mark McNulty(born 1953), golfer
*John Xavier Merriman, last prime minister of the Cape Colony
Percy Montgomery(born 1974), rugby player and all-time scoring leader for the Springboks
Gordon Murray(born 1946), Formula 1car designer
Steve Nash(born 1974), basketball player (emigrated to Canada in early childhood, more generally identified as Canadian)
*Mungo Park, explorer
Alan Paton(1903-1988), author
Gary Player(born 1936), golfer
*(Robert) Graeme Pollock (born 1944), cricketer
Shaun Pollock(born 1973), cricketer
Nick Price(born 1957), golfer
David Rattray(1958-2007), historian
Cecil John Rhodes(1853-1902), businessman and politician
Jonty Rhodes(born 1969), cricketer
Rory Sabbatini(born 1976), golfer
Jody Scheckter(born 1950), Formula 1World Champion 1979
Tomas Scheckter(born 1980), Indy Racing League and A1 Grand Prix series racing driver
Frederick Selous, after whom the Selous Scouts were named
Sir Theophilus Shepstone, Zulu expert
Anthony Sher, actor and novelist
Mark Shuttleworth(born 1973), web entrepreneur, founder of Thawte, astronaut
*Sir Harry Smith, founder of
Ladysmith, which he named after his wife
Ian Douglas SmithGCLM ID (1919-2007) Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesiafrom April 13, 1964 to November 11, 1965 and the first Prime Minister of Rhodesiafrom November 11, 1965 to June 1, 1979
Wilbur Smith(born January 9, 1933), novelist
Sir Richard Southey(born 1808), Lieutenant-Governor, Colonial Secretary and Treasurer
Henry Morton Stanley, colleague of Dr. Livingstone
Edwin Swales, (1915-1945), SAAF, VC DFC
Heath Streak, cricketer, captain of the Red Lions
J. R. R. TolkienSouth Africa-born author
Charlize Theron, Academy-Awardwinning actress
Clem Tholet, folk singer, guitarist & songwriter [http://www.mazoe.com/clembiography.html]
Phillip Tobias, anthropologist
*Major Allan Wilson of the
Shangani Patrol, the Anglo-African equivalent to Custer's Last Stand[http://www.zimupdate.com/interactive_network/school.asp?schoolid=1025&school=Allan%20Wilson%20High%20School]
Roger Whittaker, musician
Joseph Wolpe(1915-1997), psychiatrist, born in Johannesburg and later moved to the USA
Whites in South Africa
Whites in Kenya
Whites in Zimbabwe
* [http://www.anglo-boer.co.za/ The Anglo-Boer War website]
* [http://www.fotw.net/flags/za%7Deng.html Flags of the World: English African Front for Liberty and the Rooinek Banner]
Ethnic groups in South Africa
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Anglo-America — is a region in the Americas in which English is the main language, Anglo America , vol. 1, Micropædia, Encyclopædia Britannica , 15th ed., Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1990. ISBN 0 85229 511 1.] or one which has significant British… … Wikipedia
Anglo — The term Anglo is used as a prefix to indicate a relation to the Angles, England or the English people, as in the phrases Anglo Saxon , Anglo American , Anglo Celtic , and Anglo Indian . It is often used alone, somewhat loosely, to refer to a… … Wikipedia
Anglo-Celtic Australian — Infobox Ethnic group group = Anglo Celtic Australian Some Notable Anglo Celtic Australians: Donald Bradman·Edith Cowan·John Curtin Kylie Minogue·Alfred Deakin·Nicole Kidman flagicon|Irelandflagicon|United Kingdomflagicon|Australia pop = Ancestry… … Wikipedia
Anglo-Iraqi War — Part of the Mediterranean, Middle East and African theatre of the Second World War British troops looking at … Wikipedia
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran — Part of Mediterranean, Middle East and African theatres of World War II British troops and Soviet armoured car in Iran … Wikipedia
Anglo American — Rechtsform Public limited company ISIN GB00B1XZS820 Gründung … Deutsch Wikipedia
Anglo American Platinum — Anglo American Unternehmensform Public limited company Gründung 1917 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Anglo American Plc — Anglo American Unternehmensform Public limited company Gründung 1917 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Anglo Platinum — ltd is the world s largest primary producer of platinum, accounting for about 38% of the world s annual production. The company, based in South Africa, was previously called Anglo American Platinum Corporation Limited . Anglo Platinum expects to… … Wikipedia
African American dance — African American dances in the vernacular tradition (academically known as African American vernacular dance ) are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or… … Wikipedia