Yellow Head (person)

Yellow Head (person)

There are several Anishinaabe peoples with the name "Yellow Head".

Yellow Head, the two spirit

"Ozaawindib" ("Yellow Head" in English, recorded variously as Oza Windib, O-zaw-wen-dib, O-zaw-wan-dib, Ozawondib, etc.) was an Ojibwa warrior who lived in the early 19th century and was described as an "egwakwe" ("agokwa" in literature, literally meaning "genitaled-woman")—what a modern Ojibwa would describe as a "niizh manidoowag" (two-spirit).

"Wiishkobak" ("Sweet" or "Le Sucre", recorded as "Wesh-ko-bug"), a chief of the Leech Lake Pillagers ["Letters", 2:241] was "Ozaawindib"'s father. As an "egwakwe", John Tanner described "Ozaawindib" as "This man was one of those who make themselves women, and are called women by the Indians." ["Captivity", p. 89]

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, who knew "Ozaawindib" personally, reports that "Ozaawindib" was very courageous in battle. Schoolcraft also reports "Ozaawindib" was a principal Pillager Chippewa for the Cass Lake Band. ["Narrative", p. 20] He also states:

When Tanner encamped on Red River of the North, he reports that he was the subject of interest of "Ozaawindib", who at that time was about 50 years old and already had several husbands. Tanner reported that after rejecting repeated advances by "Ozaawindib", "Ozaawindib" was still determined to win Tanner's heart. "Ozaawindib" disappeared for a few days and returned to camp with much needed fresh meat. However, even after bringing much needed fresh meat to the camp, "Ozaawindib" was still rejected by Tanner. "Ozaawindib" became the third wife of Chief "Wenji-dotaagan" ["Wenji-dotaagan" (recorded as Wa-ge-to-tah-gun or "That Has a Bell") often he went by "Wenji-dot" (recorded as "Wa-ge-tote")] as the solution to "Ozaawindib"'s courtship efforts toward Tanner. ["Captivity", pp. 90-91]

Alexander Henry reported from his Pembina Post in 1897 that when "Ozaawindib" was drunk, "he was not merely a nuisance but a bothersome man." ["New Light", p. 164]

"Ozaawindib" is remembered in place names such as Lake Plantagenet ("Ozaawindibe-zaaga'igan") and Schoolcraft River ("Ozaawindibe-ziibi") in the Anishinaabe language, [cite web |url=http://www.freelang.net/dictionary/ojibwe.html |title=Freelang Ojibwe Dictionary |publisher=Freelang.net] and as Yellow Head Point of Lake Itasca [coord|47.21472|N|95.21|W|region:US-MN] in English.

Yellow Head, Prairie Rice Lake Chief

"Ozaawindib" ("Yellow Head" in English, recorded as O-za-win-dib) was an Ojibwa chief for the Prairie Rice Lake Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, a Band originally located near Rice Lake, Wisconsin and later consolidated with the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. He was of the "Niibinaabe-doodem" (Merman Clan). He engaged in the Battle of Prairie Rice Lake in 1798. ["Mashkode-manoominikaani-zaaga'igan" (Prairie Rice Lake) is Prairie Lake of Chetek, Wisconsin] He was killed with "Wolf's Father" by a Dakota while hunting at the mouth of Hay River. ["History", p. 320] He had twin sons: "Nenaa'angebi" (Beautifying Bird) and "Shák'pí" (Six)

Yellow Head, Mille Lacs Indians Chief

"Ozaawandib" ("Yellow Head" in English, recorded as O-za-wan-dib) was an Ojibwa chief for the Mille Lacs Indians. ["Manuscripts"]

Notes

References

* Catlin, George. (1841) "Letters and notes on the Manners, Customs and Condition of the Indians of North America, 1832-39." London: Tosswill and Myers.
* Coues, Elliott, ed. (1897) "New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest: The Manuscript Journals of Alexander Henry and of David Thompson". New York: Francis P. Harper.
* Gilfillan, J. A. (1893) "Manuscripts of Rev. J. A. Gilfillan." St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press.
* James, Edwin, ed. (1830) "Captivity of John Tanner". New York.
* Schooolcraft, Henry Rowe. (1834) "Narrative of an Expedition Through the Upper Mississippi to Itasca Lake: The Actual Source of This River". New York: Harper & Brothers.
* —————, (1851 , reprint 1975) "Personal Memoirs Of A Residence Of Thirty Years With The Indian Tribes On The American Frontiers". Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co., reprint New York: Arno Press
* Warren, William W. (1885, reprint 1984) "History of the Ojibway People". St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press.

Further reading

On "Yellow Head, the berdache"
* O'Meara, Walter. (1962) "The Last Portage". Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
* Roscoe, Will. (1988) "Living the Spirit: A Gay American Indian Anthology". New York: St. Martin's Press.On "Yellow Head, Lac Courte Oreilles Chief"
* [http://turtletrack.org/Issues02/Co12142002/CO_12142002_TheTwins.htm Canku Ota] article "The Twins - Part 1 of 3" by Timm Severud ("Ondamitag")


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