- Anti-cardiolipin antibodies
Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often directed against
cardiolipinand found in several diseases including syphiliscite journal | author = Tringali GR, Julian AJ, Halbert WM | title = Effect of 2-mercaptoethanol treatment on anticardiolipin reactivity in sera from syphilitics and false positive reactors | journal = The British journal of venereal diseases | volume = 45 | issue = 3 | pages = 202–4 | year = 1969 | pmid = 5346419 | doi = | issn = ] , antiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Behçet's syndromecite journal | author = Hull RG, Harris EN, Gharavi AE, "et al" | title = Anticardiolipin antibodies: occurrence in Behçet's syndrome | journal = Ann. Rheum. Dis. | volume = 43 | issue = 5 | pages = 746–8 | year = 1984 | pmid = 6497467 | doi = | issn = ] , idiopathic spontaneous abortion,cite journal | author = Petri M, Golbus M, Anderson R, Whiting-O'Keefe Q, Corash L, Hellmann D | title = Antinuclear antibody, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin antibody in women with idiopathic habitual abortion. A controlled, prospective study of forty-four women | journal = Arthritis Rheum. | volume = 30 | issue = 6 | pages = 601–6 | year = 1987 | pmid = 3111489 | doi = | issn = ] and systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE).cite journal | author = Harris EN, Gharavi AE, Boey ML, "et al" | title = Anticardiolipin antibodies: detection by radioimmunoassay and association with thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus | journal = Lancet | volume = 2 | issue = 8361 | pages = 1211–4 | year = 1983 | pmid = 6139567 | doi = 10.1016/S0140-6736(83)91267-9] They are a form of anti-mitochondrial antibody. In SLE, The anti-DNA antibodies and anti-cardiolipin act independently.cite journal | author = Harris EN, Gharavi AE, Loizou S, "et al" | title = Crossreactivity of antiphospholipid antibodies | journal = Journal of clinical & laboratory immunology | volume = 16 | issue = 1 | pages = 1–6 | year = 1985 | pmid = 3981615] In rheumatoid arthritiscite journal | author = Keane A, Woods R, Dowding V, Roden D, Barry C | title = Anticardiolipin antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis | journal = Br. J. Rheumatol. | volume = 26 | issue = 5 | pages = 346–50 | year = 1987 | pmid = 3664159 | doi = | issn = ] w/systemic sclerosis ( scleroderma)cite journal | author = Malia RG, Greaves M, Rowlands LM, "et al" | title = Anticardiolipin antibodies in systemic sclerosis: immunological and clinical associations | journal = Clin. Exp. Immunol. | volume = 73 | issue = 3 | pages = 456–60 | year = 1988 | pmid = 2974767 | doi = | issn = ] these antibodies may tie two conditions together.
Anti-cardiolipin antibodies come can be classified in two ways.
* As IgM, IgG or IgA
* As β2-glycoprotein dependent or independent
** In autoimmune disease ACA are beta-2 glycoprotein dependent
syphilisACA are beta-2 glycoprotein independent and can be assayed using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test
Apolipoprotein H involvement
β2-glycoprotein I has been identified as
Apolipoprotein Hand is required for the recognition of ACA in autoimmune disease.cite journal | author = McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA | title = Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen that includes a lipid-binding inhibitor of coagulation: beta 2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H) | journal = Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. | volume = 87 | issue = 11 | pages = 4120–4 | year = 1990 | pmid = 2349221 | doi = ] Only a subset of autoimmune anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind Apo-H, these anti-apolipoprotein antibodiesare associated with increased thrombosis.
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