- Hostages Trial
__NOTOC__The Hostages Trial (or, officially, "The United States of America vs. Wilhelm List, et al.") was held from
8 July, 1947until 19 February, 1948and was the seventh of the twelve trials for war crimes the U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone in Germanyin Nurembergafter the end of World War II. These twelve trials were all held before U.S. military courts, not before the International Military Tribunal, but took place in the same rooms at the Palace of Justice. The twelve U.S. trials are collectively known as the " Subsequent Nuremberg Trials" or, more formally, as the "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals" (NMT).
This case is also known as the "Southeast Case" because the defendants were all German generals leading the troops in south-eastern Europe during the
Balkans Campaign, i.e. in Greece, Albania, and what was then Yugoslavia(and also in Norway), and they were charged as those responsible for the hostage-taking of civilians and wanton shootings of these hostages and of "partisans" that the German troops committed there in the years from 1941 on.
The judges in this case, heard before Military Tribunal V, were
Charles F. Wennerstrum(presiding judge) from Iowa, George J. Burkefrom Michigan, and Edward F. Carterfrom Nebraska. The Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Telford Taylor, the chief prosecutor for this case was Theodore Fenstermacher. The indictmentwas filed on May 10 1947; the trial lasted from July 8 1947until February 19 1948. Of the 12 defendants indicted, Franz Böhmecommitted suicide before the arraignment, and Maximilian von Weichswas severed from the trial due to medical reasons. Of the remaining ten defendants, two were acquitted; the others received prison sentences ranging from seven years to lifetime imprisonment.
The accused faced four charges of having committed
war crimesand crimes against humanity:
Mass murderof hundreds of thousands of civilians in Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia by having ordered hostage taking and reprisal killings.
# Plundering and wanton destruction of villages and towns in Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia, and Norway.
# Murder and ill-treatment of prisoners of war, and arbitrarily designating combatants as "partisans", denying them the status of prisoners of war, as well as their killing.
# Murder, torture, deportation, and sending to
concentration camps of Greek, Albanian, and Yugoslav civilians.
All defendants were indicted on all counts; they all pleaded "not guilty".
The tribunal had to deal with two pressing questions:
# were partisans "lawful belligerents" and thus entitled the status of prisoners of war?
# was taking hostages and reprisals against civilians as a "defense" against guerrilla attacks lawful?
On the question of partisans, the tribunal concluded that under the then current
laws of war(the Hague ConventionNo. IV from 1907), the partisan fighters in southeast Europe could not be considered lawful belligerents under Article 1 of said convention [http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/WCC/List4.htm#NOTES The hostages trial, trial of Wilhelm List and others: Notes] held at University of the West of Englandoriginal source: United Nations War Crimes Commission. Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals. Volume VIII, 1949] . On List, the tribunal stated:"We are obliged to hold that such guerrillas were francs tireurswho, upon capture, could be subjected to the death penalty. Consequently, no criminal responsibility attaches to the defendant List because of the execution of captured partisans..."
Regarding hostage taking, the tribunal came to the conclusion that under certain circumstances, hostage taking and even reprisal killings might constitute an allowed line of action against guerilla attacks. In the tribunal's opinion, taking hostages (and killing them in retaliation for guerilla attacks) was subject to several conditions [ [http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/WCC/List4.htm#LAW%20RELATING%20TO%20HOSTAGES%20AND%20REPRISALS The law relating to hostages and reprisals] held at
University of the West of Englandoriginal source: United Nations War Crimes Commission. Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals. Volume VIII, 1949] . The tribunal also remarked that both the "British Manual of Military Law" and the U.S. "Basic Field Manual (Rules of Land Warfare)" permitted the taking of reprisals against a civilian population. (The British manual didn't mention killing, the U.S. manual included killing as a possible reprisal.) Nevertheless, the tribunal still found most of the accused guilty on count 1 of the indictment because it considered the acts committed by the German troops in excess of the rules under which the tribunal considered hostage taking and reprisal killings lawful.
One common line of defense of the accused was the they stated that they were only following orders from higher up, in particular from Hitler and Field Marshal Keitel. The tribunal recognized this defense only for some of the lower-ranked defendants, but concluded that in particular the highest-ranking officers, List and Kuntze, should have been well aware of the fact that these orders violated international law and thus should have opposed the execution of these orders, even more so as they were in a position that would have allowed them to do so.
I — Indicted G — Indicted and found guilty
Subsequent Nuremberg Trials
Kragujevac, a city in Serbiawhere the German troops committed a massacre on October 21, 1941.
*(WCC 1949): " [http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/WCC/List1.htm Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, Vol. VIII, 1949] " of the
United Nations War Crimes Commission.
* [http://www.ushmm.org/uia-cgi/uia_doc/photos/10462?hr=null Description] from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.
* [http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/cntrl10_trials.htm#Hostages Another description]
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