Xianbei


Xianbei

The Xianbei (zh-stpw|s=鲜卑|t=鮮卑|p=Xiānbēi|w=Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. They were descendants of Donghu (Eastern Hu) before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, and Liaoning. Possibly some tribes of these people also lived in ancient Eastern Heilongjiang or Hulun Manchu Imperial province [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20040907194316/http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/twain/1279/royalhouse/xianbei/gaxian.htm 鮮卑石室(嘎仙洞)祝詞Xianbei cave] (Chinese Traditional Big5 code page) via Internet Archive] , currently Khabarovsk and Amur regions in the Russian Far East.

The Xianbei people actually consisted of a federation of sizeable non-Han groups of which the most important was the Tuoba (拓跋). They first became a significant part of Chinese culture during the Han Dynasty, where they occupied the steppes in Mongolia, Hebei and Liaodong. After the fall of the Han dynasty, the Xianbei formed a number of empires of their own, including the Yan Dynasty, Western Qin, Southern Liang and most significantly, the Northern Wei (see Sixteen Kingdoms). By the time of the Tang dynasty they had largely merged with Han populace by adopting its customs, administration and language. The emperors Yang Guang of the Sui Dynasty and Li Yuan of the Tang Dynasty were born of Xianbei mothers and therefore half-Xianbei.Fact|date=February 2007

A Xianbei ruler was recorded as having had fair hair as were later some TatarsFacts|date=February 2007 from the same area, as well as some other Tungusic peoples.Facts|date=February 2007

Mongol and Khitan may have descended from Xianbei according to Chinese historical records.

The Xibe people believed themselves to be descendants of the Xianbei. The name of Russia's Siberia is a direct phonetic translation to the ancient tribe of "Xianbei".Xue, Fucheng. Hsieh Chien, Helen. Howland, Douglas. [1993] (1993). Palgrave Macmillan. The European Diary of Hsieh Fucheng: Envoy Extraordinary of Imperial China. ISBN 031207946X] There is a city wall in Siberia today that remains from the Xianbei tribe.

Historical sources

*Hanshu
*Sanguozhi

References

ee also

*Change of Xianbei names to Han names
*Tribes in Chinese history
*Wu Hu
*Sixteen Kingdoms
*Wuhuan
*Northern Wei Dynasty
*Chinese sovereign
*Battle of Ikh Bayan
*Bu Dugen

External links

* [http://web.archive.org/web/20050211184004/http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/twain/1279/royalhouse/xianbei/senbeilanguage.htm 鮮卑語言The Xianbei language] (Chinese Traditional Big5 code page) via Internet Archive


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